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Politics, Society, and Religion — A review and proposals for reform". Le dimanche 4 mai à I vow that I'll burn every Palestinian child that will be born in this area. Désolée de ce retard, mais au moins vous aurez de nouveaux titres à vous mettre sous la dent pendant les vacances de P? Nathalie Rapti Gomez 1. In addition to the various ancient Italian tribes and Italic peoples dispersed throughout the Italian Peninsula and insular Italy , beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians , Carthaginians and Greeks established settlements in the south of Italy , with Etruscans and Celts inhabiting the centre and the north of Italy respectively.

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Tertiary education in Italy is divided between public universities , private universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schools , such as the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.

The university system in Italy is generally regarded as poor for a world cultural powerhouse, with no universities ranked among the world best and only 20 among the top The Italian state runs a universal public healthcare system since The public part is the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale , which is organised under the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis.

Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for 9. Life expectancy in Italy is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 5th in the world for life expectancy.

For centuries divided by politics and geography until its eventual unification in , Italy has developed a unique culture, shaped by a multitude of regional customs and local centres of power and patronage. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, a number of magnificent courts competed for attracting the best architects, artists and scholars, thus producing a great legacy of monuments, paintings, music and literature. Despite the political and social isolation of these courts, Italy's contribution to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense.

The country has had a broad cultural influence worldwide, also because numerous Italians emigrated to other places during the Italian diaspora. Furthermore, the nation has, overall, an estimated , monuments of any sort museums, palaces, buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, villas, fountains, historic houses and archaeological remains. Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period, but also by region, because of Italy's division into several regional states until This has created a highly diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs.

Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements, [] such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome , the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the lateth to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism , a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture , and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.

Several of the finest works in Western architecture, such as the Colosseum , the Milan Cathedral and Florence cathedral , the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the building designs of Venice are found in Italy.

The Leaning Tower and the Duomo of Pisa. The Royal Palace of Caserta. Temple of Concordia in the Valley of the Temples , Agrigento. Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. British architect Inigo Jones , inspired by the designs of Italian buildings and cities, brought back the ideas of Italian Renaissance architecture to 17th-century England, being inspired by Andrea Palladio.

The history of Italian visual art is one of the most important parts of Western painting history. Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting.

However, Roman painting does have important unique characteristics. The only surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania , in Southern Italy. Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under the heavy influence of Byzantine icons. Towards the middle of the 13th century, Medieval art and Gothic painting became more realistic, with the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective in Italy with Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto.

From Giotto on, the treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more free and innovative. They are considered to be the two great medieval masters of painting in western culture. The Italian Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting; roughly spanning the 14th through the midth centuries with a significant influence also out of the borders of modern Italy.

In Italy artists like Paolo Uccello , Fra Angelico , Masaccio , Piero della Francesca , Andrea Mantegna , Filippo Lippi , Giorgione , Tintoretto , Sandro Botticelli , Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo Buonarroti , Raphael , Giovanni Bellini , and Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspective , the study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques.

Michelangelo was an active sculptor from about to , and his great masterpieces including his David , Pietà , Moses. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the High Renaissance gave rise to a stylised art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions and rational approach to perspective that characterised art at the dawn of the 16th century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice, and doubt. The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco.

Subsequently, in the 18th century, Italian Rococo was mainly inspired by French Rococo, since France was the founding nation of that particular style, with artists such as Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Canaletto. Italian Neoclassical sculpture focused, with Antonio Canova 's nudes, on the idealist aspect of the movement.

In the 20th century, with Futurism , primarily through the works of Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla , Italy rose again as a seminal country for artistic evolution in painting and sculpture. Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico , who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow. Italian literature began after the founding of Rome in BC. Latin literature was, and still is, highly influential in the world, with numerous writers, poets, philosophers, and historians, such as Pliny the Elder , Pliny the Younger , Virgil , Horace , Propertius , Ovid and Livy.

The Romans were also famous for their oral tradition, poetry, drama and epigrams. Francis of Assisi was considered the first Italian poet by literary critics, with his religious song Canticle of the Sun. Another Italian voice originated in Sicily.

At the court of emperor Frederick II, who ruled the Sicilian kingdom during the first half of the 13th century, lyrics modelled on Provençal forms and themes were written in a refined version of the local vernacular. The most important of these poets was the notary Giacomo da Lentini , inventor of the sonnet form, though the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. Guido Guinizelli is considered the founder of the Dolce Stil Novo , a school that added a philosophical dimension to traditional love poetry.

This new understanding of love, expressed in a smooth, pure style, influenced Guido Cavalcanti and the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri , who established the basis of the modern Italian language ; his greatest work, the Divine Comedy , is considered among the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages ; furthermore, the poet invented the difficult terza rima. The two great writers of the 14th century, Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio , sought out and imitated the works of antiquity and cultivated their own artistic personalities.

Petrarch achieved fame through his collection of poems, Il Canzoniere. Petrarch's love poetry served as a model for centuries. Equally influential was Boccaccio's The Decameron , one of the most popular collections of short stories ever written. Italian Renaissance authors produced a number of important works. Another important work of the period, Ludovico Ariosto 's Orlando Furioso , continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo 's unfinished romance Orlando Innamorato , is perhaps the greatest chivalry poem ever written.

Baldassare Castiglione 's dialogue The Book of the Courtier describes the ideal of the perfect court gentleman and of spiritual beauty. The lyric poet Torquato Tasso in Jerusalem Delivered wrote a Christian epic, making use of the ottava rima , with attention to the Aristotelian canons of unity. Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile , which have written The Facetious Nights of Straparola — and the Pentamerone respectively, printed some of the first known versions of fairy tales in Europe.

The Baroque period also produced the clear scientific prose of Galileo as well as Tommaso Campanella 's The City of the Sun , a description of a perfect society ruled by a philosopher-priest. At the end of the 17th century, the Arcadians began a movement to restore simplicity and classical restraint to poetry, as in Metastasio 's heroic melodramas. In the 18th century, playwright Carlo Goldoni created full written plays, many portraying the middle class of his day.

The Romanticism coincided with some ideas of the Risorgimento , the patriotic movement that brought Italy political unity and freedom from foreign domination. Italian writers embraced Romanticism in the early 19th century. The works by Alessandro Manzoni , the leading Italian Romantic, are a symbol of the Italian unification for their patriotic message and because of his efforts in the development of the modern, unified Italian language; his novel The Betrothed was the first Italian historical novel to glorify Christian values of justice and Providence, and it has been called the most famous and widely read novel in the Italian language.

In the late 19th century, a realistic literary movement called Verismo played a major role in Italian literature; Giovanni Verga and Luigi Capuana were its main exponents. In the same period, Emilio Salgari , writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction, published his Sandokan series.

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti wrote Manifesto of Futurism , called for the use of language and metaphors that glorified the speed, dynamism, and violence of the machine age. Modern literary figures and Nobel laureates are Gabriele D'Annunzio from to , nationalist poet Giosuè Carducci in , realist writer Grazia Deledda in , modern theatre author Luigi Pirandello in , short stories writer Italo Calvino in , poets Salvatore Quasimodo in and Eugenio Montale in , Umberto Eco in , and satirist and theatre author Dario Fo in Italian theatre can be traced back to the Roman tradition.

The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus 's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energising effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage.

As with many other literary genres, Roman dramatists was heavily influenced or tended to adapt from the Greek. For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on that of Euripides , and many of the comedies of Plautus were direct translations of works by Menander. During the 16th century and on into the 18th century, Commedia dell'arte was a form of improvisational theatre , and it is still performed today. Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling , acrobatics and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio.

Plays did not originate from written drama but from scenarios called lazzi , which were loose frameworks that provided the situations, complications, and outcome of the action, around which the actors would improvise. The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types and stock characters , each of which has a distinct costume , such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado.

The main categories of these characters include servants, old men, lovers, and captains. Carlo Goldoni , who wrote a few scenarios starting in , supersed the comedy of masks and the comedy of intrigue by representations of actual life and manners through the characters and their behaviours.

He rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of artistic treatment such as had not been given them before. The Teatro di San Carlo in Naples is the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world, opening in , decades before both the Milan's La Scala and Venice's La Fenice theatres. From folk music to classical , music has always played an important role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, [] [] and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony , concerto, and sonata , can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.

Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music. While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world , [] and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano Pavarotti , Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene.

Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera. La Scala operahouse in Milan is also renowned as one of the best in the world. Introduced in the early s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime.

Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. In the early s, the first star to emerge from the Italian hip hop scene was singer Jovanotti. Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic music , with Italo disco , known for its futuristic sound and prominent usage of synthesisers and drum machines , being one of the earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco aside from Euro disco which later went on to influence several genres such as Eurodance and Nu-disco.

By the latter half of the s, a subgenre of Eurodance known as Italo dance emerged. Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders. Producers such as Giorgio Moroder , who won three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes for his music, were highly influential in the development of electronic dance music.

The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the Lumière brothers began motion picture exhibitions. The Italian film industry was born between and with three companies: Other companies soon followed in Milan and in Naples. In a short time these first companies reached a fair producing quality, and films were soon sold outside Italy. After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the s. The mids to the early s was the heyday of neorealist films , reflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy.

As the country grew wealthier in the s, a form of neorealism known as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genres , such as sword-and-sandal followed as spaghetti westerns , were popular in the s and s.

Actresses such as Sophia Loren , Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos , produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the s, also influenced the horror genre worldwide. In recent years, the Italian scene has received only occasional international attention, with movies like Life Is Beautiful directed by Roberto Benigni , Il Postino: The aforementioned Cinecittà studio is today the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where a large number of biggest box office hits are filmed, and one of the biggest production communities in the world.

In the s, the number of international productions being made there led to Rome's being dubbed " Hollywood on the Tiber ". More than 3, productions have been made on its lot, of which 90 received an Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it, from some cinema classics to recent rewarded features such as Ben-Hur , Cleopatra , Romeo and Juliet , The English Patient , Gladiator , The Passion of the Christ , and Gangs of New York.

The most popular sport in Italy is, by far, football. Italy's top-flight club football league is named Serie A and ranks as the third best in Europe and is followed by millions of fans around the world. Other popular team sports in Italy include volleyball , basketball and rugby. Italy's male and female national volleyball teams are often featured among the world's best.

The Italian national basketball team 's best results were gold at Eurobasket and EuroBasket , as well as silver at the Olympics in Lega Basket Serie A is widely considered one of the most competitive in Europe. Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country. Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by World Rugby. The men's volleyball team won three consecutive World Championships in , , and and earned the Olympic silver medal in , , and Italy has a long and successful tradition in individual sports as well.

Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country. The Giro d'Italia is a cycling race held every May, and constitutes one of the three Grand Tours , along with the Tour de France and the Vuelta a España , each of which last approximately three weeks.

Alpine skiing is also a very widespread sport in Italy, and the country is a popular international skiing destination, known for its ski resorts.

Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as the fourth most practised sport in the country. Italian professional tennis players won the Davis Cup in and the Fed Cup in , , and Motorsports are also extremely popular in Italy. Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since , and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history with a record of wins.

Historically, Italy has been successful in the Olympic Games , taking part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of Italian sportsmen have won medals at the Summer Olympic Games , and another at the Winter Olympic Games , for a combined total of medals with golds, which makes them the fifth most successful nation in Olympic history for total medals.

The country hosted two Winter Olympics in and , and one Summer games in Italian fashion has a long tradition , and is regarded as one most important in the world. Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitals. Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia , is considered one of the most prestigious fashion magazines in the world. Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior design, architectural design , industrial design and urban design. The country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass , and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno" and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture design.

The city of Milan hosts Fiera Milano , Europe's largest design fair. The Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan , ancient Greek , ancient Roman , Byzantine , and Jewish. The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta , fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients.

A key factor in the success of Italian cuisine is its heavy reliance on traditional products; Italy has the most traditional specialities protected under EU law. Gelato , [] tiramisù [] and cassata are among the most famous examples of Italian desserts, cakes and patisserie.

Public holidays celebrated in Italy include religious, national and regional observances. The Saint Lucy's Day , which take place on 13 December, is very popular among children in some Italian regions, where she plays a role similar to Santa Claus. There are many festivals and festivities in Italy. The prestigious Venice International Film Festival , awarding the " Golden Lion " and held annually since , is the oldest film festival in the world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Italy disambiguation. For other uses, see Italia disambiguation. Show map of Europe. German is co-official in South Tyrol ; French is co-official in the Aosta Valley ; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste and the province of Gorizia ; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in Trentino and in other northern areas; Sardinian is co-official in Sardinia.

The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc. Etruscan fresco in the Monterozzi necropolis , 5th century BC. Matera , which dates from Palaeolithic, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Colosseum in Rome, built c. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD. Italy in the Middle Ages. History of the Italian Republic. Dolomites in the Italian alps. Undulating landscape in Tuscany.

Rabbit Beach in the island of Lampedusa. List of rivers of Italy and List of lakes of Italy. List of national parks of Italy and List of regional parks of Italy. Fauna of Italy and Flora of Italy.

Sergio Mattarella President of Italy since Giuseppe Conte Prime Minister of Italy since Law of Italy and Judiciary of Italy. Law enforcement in Italy. Foreign relations of Italy. Water supply and sanitation in Italy. Science and technology in Italy. Languages of Italy , Italian language , and Regional Italian.

Secondary or non-official language. Italy is home to many of the world's largest, oldest and opulent churches. Florence Cathedral , which has the biggest brick dome in the world; [] [] St. Peter's Basilica , the largest church of Christendom ; [] Milan Cathedral , the largest Italian church and the third largest in the world; [] and St Mark's Basilica , one of the best known examples of Italo- Byzantine architecture [].

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