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The stiffness, tension and stress accumulates there from lack of exercise and lack of toning. The urinary system is shown in Figure below. Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema. Pneumonia is a disease that causes the alveoli to fill up with fluid. In your Asana practice, you should work towards gaining strength, endurance and balance, not only flexibility. They vary in size. Name the five main organs in the respiratory system.
Muscular System –
As ADH levels rise, the kidneys produce more concentrated urine, thus causing the level of sodium in the bloodstream to further drop. One of the ways your body excretes toxins is through sweat. When you exercise, you sweat more and you also need more water. Sweat is made up of some of the processes of respiration, such as dead cells, according to the Franklin Institute.
Aim to get 30 to 60 minutes of exercise three to five times per week. Features The excretory system traps wastes like urea and excess salts and expels them from the body. In the process, it helps preserve a vital balance in the level of salts and fluids in the blood. A portion of your brain called the hypothalamus regulates excretion by producing anti-diuretic hormone ADH , which acts to reduce the amount of water removed from the blood by the kidneys and thereby to reduce the rate of excretion.
Popular presentations See more popular or the latest prezis. Creating downloadable prezi, be patient. Delete comment or cancel. Therefore, its role as a part of the excretory system is minimal. Sweating also maintains the level of salt in the body.
The sweat, helped by salt, evaporates and helps to keep the body cool when it is warm. In amphibians, the lungs are very simple, and they lack the necessary means to the exhale like other tetrapods can. The moist, scale-less skin is therefore essential in helping to rid the blood of carbon dioxide , and also allows for urea to be expelled through diffusion when submerged.
In small-bodied marine invertebrates, the skin is the most important excretory organ. That is particularly true for acoelomate groups like cnidarians , flatworms and nemerteans , who have no body cavities and hence no body fluid that can be drained or purified by nephrons, which is the reason acoelomate animals are thread-like nemertans , flat flatworms or only consist of a thin layer of cells around a gelatinous non-cellular interior cnidarians.
Like sweat glands, eccrine glands allow excess water to leave the body. The majority of eccrine glands are located mainly on the forehead, the bottoms of the feet, and the palms, although the glands are everywhere throughout the body. They help the body to maintain temperature control. Eccrine glands in the skin are unique to mammals. Secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands play a large role in controlling the body temperature of humans.
The two functions consist of secretion of a filtrate in response to acetylcholine and reabsorption of sodium near the duct when there is water in excess so that a sweat can be surfacing the skin. There are three parts to the eccrine sweat gland and these are the pore, the duct, and the gland. The pore is the portion that goes through the outermost layer of the skin and is typically microns in diameter.
The duct is the part of the sweat gland that connects dermis cells to the epidermis. It is composed by two layers of cells and is between 10 and 20 microns in diameter. The gland does the actual secretion and it lies deep within the dermis. The cells that make up the gland are larger in size than the duct cells and its lumen is around 20 microns in diameter.
After bile is produced in the liver, it is stored in the gall bladder. It is then secreted within the small intestine where it helps to emulsify fats in the same manner as a soap.
Bile also contains bilirubin , which is a waste product. Bile salts can be considered waste that is useful for the body given that they have a role in fat absorption from the stomach. They are excreted from the liver and along with blood flow they help to form the shape of the liver where they are excreted.
For instance, if biliary drainage is impaired than that part of the liver will end up wasting away. Biliary obstruction is typically due to masses blocking the ducts of the system such as tumors. The consequences of this depend on the site of blockage and how long it goes on for. There is inflammation of the ducts due to the irritation from the bile acids and this can cause infections. If rupture of the duct takes place it is very traumatic and even fatal.
Within the kidney, blood first passes through the afferent artery to the capillary formation called a glomerulus and is collected in the Bowman's capsule , which filters the blood from its contents—primarily food and wastes. After the filtration process, the blood then returns to collect the food nutrients it needs, while the wastes pass into the collecting duct, to the renal pelvis, and to the ureter, and are then secreted out of the body via the urinary bladder.
When substances are not properly dissolved, they have the ability to build up, and form these kidney stones. These stones are most commonly made up of substances such as calcium, cystine, oxalate, and uric acid, as these are the substances that normally would dissolve within the urine. When they do not dissolve correctly and further build up, they will commonly lodge themselves in the urinary tract and in this case, are usually small enough to pass through urine.
In extreme situations, however, these stones may lodge themselves within the tube that connects the kidney and the bladder, called the ureter.
In this case, they become very large in size and will most likely cause great pain, bleeding, and possibly even block the flow of urine. In those extreme situations, in which kidney stones are too large to pass on their own, patients may seek removal.
Most of these treatments involving kidney stone removal are done by a urologist; a physician who specializes in the organs of the Urinary system. Larger, more serious cases may demand Cystoscopy, Ureteroscopy, or Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, in which the doctor will use a viewing tool or camera to locate the stone, and based on the size or situation, may either chose to continue with surgical removal, or use the shock wave lithotripsy treatment.
Once the kidney stone s are successfully eliminated, the urologist will commonly suggest medication to prevent future recurrences. Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection that occurs when bacteria enters the body through the urinary tract. It causes an inflammation of the renal parenchyma, calyces, and pelvis. In acute pyelonephritis, the patient experiences high fever, abdominal pain and pain while passing urine.
Treatment for acute pyelonephritis is provided via antibiotics and an extensive urological investigation is conducted to find any abnormalities and prevent recurrence. But it also removes a waste, carbon dioxide. Another system in your body, the excretory system, also removes wastes. The excretory system moves waste from your digestive system and from your blood out of your body.
How do the respiratory system and excretory system work together? How does damage in one system affect the other? Consider these questions about respiration and waste removal as you read the following chapter. You breathe mostly without thinking about it. Remember how uncomfortable you felt the last time you had a cold or a cough?
You usually do not think about your respiratory system or how it works until there is a problem with it. Every cell in your body depends on your respiratory system. Your respiratory system is made up of the tissues and organs that allow oxygen to enter the body and carbon dioxide to leave your body. Organs in your respiratory system include your:. Air moves in through the nose and mouth and down the trachea, which is a long, straight tube in the chest. Figure above shows many of the structures of the respiratory system.
Each of the parts has a specific job. The parts of the respiratory system include the following:. Most of the time, you breathe without thinking about it. Breathing is mostly an involuntary action that is controlled by a part of your brain that also controls your heart beat. If you swim, do yoga, or sing, you know you can also control your breathing. Taking air into the body through the nose and mouth is called inhalation. Pushing air out of the body through the nose or mouth is called exhalation.
The man in Figure below is exhaling before he surfaces from the pool water. Being able to control breathing is important for many activities, such as swimming. The man in the photograph is exhaling before he surfaces from the water. How do lungs allow air in? As mentioned above, air moves into and out of the lungs by the movement of muscles. The diaphragm and rib muscles contract and relax to move air into and out of the lungs.
During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward. The rib muscles contract and cause the ribs to move outward. This causes the chest volume to increase. Because the chest volume is larger, the air pressure inside the lungs is lower than the air pressure outside. This difference in air pressures causes air to be sucked into the lungs. When the diaphragm and rib muscles relax, air is pushed out of the lungs.
Exhalation is similar to letting the air out of a balloon. The walls of the alveoli are very thin and allow gases to enter into them. The alveoli are lined with capillaries. These capillaries are shown in Figure below.
Oxygen moves from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries that surround the alveoli. At the same time, carbon dioxide moves in the opposite direction, from capillary blood to the alveoli. The bronchi and alveoli. During respiration, oxygen gets pulled into the lungs and enters the blood by passing across the thin alveoli membranes and into the capillaries.
When you breath in, oxygen is drawn in through the mouth and down into the lungs. The oxygen then passes across the thin lining of the capillaries and into the blood. The oxygen molecules are carried to the body cells by the blood. Carbon dioxide from the body cells is carried by the blood to the lungs where it is released into the air. The process of getting oxygen into the body and releasing carbon dioxide is called respiration. Sometimes breathing is called respiration, but there is much more to respiration than just breathing.
There are actually two parts to respiration, external respiration and internal respiration. External respiration is the movement of oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. Internal respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the cells of the body Figure below.
Breathing is only part of the process of bringing oxygen to where it is needed in the body. After oxygen enters the lungs, what happens? The oxygen that arrives at the cells from the lungs is used by the cells to help release the energy stored in molecules of sugar. Cellular respiration is the process of breaking down glucose to release energy see the Cell Functions chapter.
The waste products of cellular respiration include carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide molecules move out of the cells and into the capillaries that surround the cells. As explained above, the carbon dioxide is removed from the body by the lungs. A classmate says that lung muscles cause the lungs to move during breathing.
Do you agree with your classmate? Most of the time your respiratory system works well. But your respiratory system can sometimes be knocked out of homeostasis. Recall that homeostasis is the balancing act your body performs that keeps everything inside of your body stable. Anything that stops the respiratory system from doing its job disrupts homeostasis. When homeostasis is thrown out of balance, your respiratory system can get diseases.
There are many causes of respiratory diseases, and many ways to treat such diseases. In general, diseases that last a short time are called acute diseases. Other diseases can last for a long time, perhaps years. Diseases that last for a long time are called chronic diseases.
Both acute and chronic diseases affect the respiratory system. Respiratory diseases are diseases of the lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, nose, and throat Figure below. These diseases can range from a mild cold to a severe case of pneumonia.
Respiratory diseases are common and may cause illness or death. Some respiratory diseases are caused by bacteria or viruses, while others are caused by environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke. Some diseases can be genetic. This boy is suffering from whooping cough also known as pertussis , which gets its name from the loud whooping sound that is made when the person inhales during a coughing fit. Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi, which means they become red and swollen with infection.
Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria, and may last several days or weeks. It is characterized by a cough that produces phlegm, or mucus. Symptoms include shortness of breath and wheezing. Acute bronchitis is usually treated with antibiotics. Chronic bronchitis may not be caused by a bacterium or a virus.
Chronic bronchitis occurs when a cough produces phlegm, for at least three months in a two-year period. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis, but it can be caused by environmental pollution, such as smog and dust. It is generally part of a disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. Treatments for bronchitis include antibiotics and steroid drugs used to reduce inflammation. Asthma is a chronic illness in which the bronchioles are inflamed and become narrow, as shown in Figure below.
The muscles around the bronchioles contract which narrows the airways. Large amounts of mucus are also made by the cells in the lungs. A person with asthma has difficulty breathing.
Their chest feels tight and they wheeze. Asthma can be caused by different things, such as allergies. An allergen is any antigen that is not actually a disease, but your body responds to it as if it were a disease. Allergens can cause allergic reactions. Common allergens that cause asthma are mold, dust, or pet hair.
Asthma can also be caused by cold air, warm air, moist air, exercise, or stress. The most common asthma triggers are illnesses like the common cold. The symptoms of asthma can usually be controlled with medicine. Bronchodilators are drugs that reduce inflammation of the bronchioles and are often used to treat asthma. An inhaler is usually a bronchodilator. Asthma is not contagious and cannot be passed on to other people. Children and adolescents who have asthma can still lead active lives if they control their asthma.
Asthma can be controlled by taking medication and by avoiding contact with environmental triggers for asthma, like smoking. Pneumonia is an illness that occurs when the alveoli become inflamed and filled with some kind of fluid.
When a person has pneumonia, gas exchange cannot happen properly across the alveoli. Pneumonia can be caused by many things. Infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites can cause pneumonia. An injury caused by chemicals or a physical injury to the lungs can also cause pneumonia.
Symptoms of pneumonia include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects people in all age groups. It is a leading cause of death among the elderly and people who are chronically and terminally ill. Sometimes people take vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia. Tuberculosis TB is a common and often deadly disease caused by a genus of bacterium called Mycobacterium.
When a disease like TB can passed from person to person, it is called "infectious. TB is a chronic disease, but most people who become infected do not develop the full disease. The TB bacteria are spread in the air when people who have the disease cough, sneeze or spit, so it is very contagious.
To help prevent the spread of the disease, public health notices, such as the one in Figure below , remind people how to stop the spread of the disease. A public health notice from the early 20th century reminded people that TB could be spread very easily. Lung cancer is a disease where the cells found in the lungs grow out of control. The growing mass of cells can form a tumor that pushes into nearby tissues.
The tumor will affect how these tissues work. Lung cancer, which is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women, is responsible for 1. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing including coughing up blood , and weight loss.
The most common cause of lung cancer is exposure to tobacco smoke. Emphysema is a chronic lung disease caused by the breakdown of the lung tissue.
The surfaces of healthy alveoli are springy and flexible. They stretch out a little when full of air and relax when air leaves them. But the breakdown of the tissues that support the alveoli and the capillaries that feed the alveoli cause the alveoli to become hard and stiff. Eventually, the walls of the alveoli break down and the alveoli become larger. When alveoli become larger, oxygen cannot enter the blood as it did before.
Symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath during exercise. Damage to the alveoli, which can be seen in Figure below , is not curable. Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
The lung of a smoker who had emphysema left. The black areas are enlarged alveoli, and tar, a sticky, black substance found in tobacco smoke is evident. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease right , is a tobacco-related disease that is characterized by emphysema. Many respiratory diseases are caused by pathogens. A pathogen is an organism that causes disease in another organism.
Certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi are pathogens of the respiratory system. The common cold and flu are caused by viruses. The influenza virus that causes the flu is shown in Figure below.