Health, Hygiene and the Human Body

Three types of muscles

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The core of some small bones is called marrow, it is soft and jellylike. This is is a early fall October hoof from an Arab on pasture. You may refer to olive oil as a monounsaturated fat. You can see the deep crack on the Freedom case study that she referred to. It is possible, however, to meet all of your protein needs while consuming a vegetarian diet. How Fast Does Cancer Grow?

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Macronutrients

Hydroxyapatite provides the strength for your bones. If calcium is not available in your body, the newly formed bone will be weak and brittle. Eventually, this can lead to the bone disease called osteoporosis.

To ensure that your bones stay healthy, aim to consume at least 1,mg of calcium every day. The best sources of calcium include milk, yogurt and cheese. Other good sources include broccoli, kale, canned salmon with the bones and calcium-fortified foods.

Your body uses the mineral phosphorus in combination with calcium to form hydroxyapatite. Because of this, the presence of phosphorus in the body is just as essential to bone health as calcium. To keep phosphorus levels in the body with normal ranges, it is important to consume mg of phosphorus daily. Good sources of phosphorus include meat, fish, poultry and dairy products.

When vitamin D becomes active in your body, it acts as a hormone that helps regulate calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in your small intestine and ensures that the minerals are available in your bloodstream. Because of its role in increasing absorption of these minerals, vitamin D ensures that your bone stays healthy. Adults should consume 5 to 15mcg of vitamin D daily. The best dietary sources of vitamin D include fortified milk, breakfast cereal, yogurt and fatty fish.

Vitamin D can also be synthesized in your skin with the help of ultraviolet rays from the sun. Vitamin C acts as a coenzyme in your body, which means that it helps chemical reactions take place. One of the most important coenzyme functions of vitamin C is its role in synthesizing the amino acids that are needed to make collagen. It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain , lungs , heart and spinal cord.

Although the teeth do not consist of tissue commonly found in bones, the teeth are usually considered as members of the skeletal system.

Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are interconnected directly: There are three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that articulate only with each other. The hyoid bone , which is located in the neck and serves as the point of attachment for the tongue , does not articulate with any other bones in the body, being supported by muscles and ligaments.

There are bones in the adult human skeleton, although this number depends on whether the pelvic bones the hip bones on each side are counted as one or three bones on each side ilium, ischium, and pubis , whether the coccyx or tail bone is counted as one or four separate bones, and does not count the variable wormian bones between skull sutures. Similarly, the sacrum is usually counted as a single bone, rather than five fused vertebrae.

There is also a variable number of small sesamoid bones, commonly found in tendons. The patella or kneecap on each side is an example of a larger sesamoid bone. The patellae are counted in the total, as they are constant. The number of bones varies between individuals and with age - newborn babies have over bones [9] [10] [11] some of which fuse together. These bones are organized into a longitudinal axis, the axial skeleton , to which the appendicular skeleton is attached.

The human skeleton takes 20 years before it is fully developed. In many animals, the skeleton bones contain marrow , which produces blood cells. There exist several general differences between the male and female skeletons. The male skeleton, for example, is generally larger and heavier than the female skeleton.

In the female skeleton, the bones of the skull are generally less angular. The female skeleton also has wider and shorter breastbone and slimmer wrists. There exist significant differences between the male and female pelvis which are related to the female's pregnancy and childbirth capabilities. The female pelvis is wider and shallower than the male pelvis.

Female pelvises also have an enlarged pelvic outlet and a wider and more circular pelvic inlet. The angle between the pubic bones is known to be sharper in males, which results in a more circular, narrower, and near heart-shaped pelvis.

Bones are rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They function to move, support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. Bones have a variety of shapes with a complex internal and external structure they are also lightweight, yet strong and hard. One of the types of tissue that makes up bone tissue is mineralized tissue and this gives it rigidity and a honeycomb-like three-dimensional internal structure.

Other types of tissue found in bones include marrow , endosteum and periosteum , nerves , blood vessels and cartilage. There are bones in the adult human body [15] and in an infant. During embryogenesis the precursor to bone development is cartilage. Much of this substance is then replaced by bone during the second and third trimester, after the flesh such as muscle has formed around it; forming the skeleton.

Cartilage is a stiff and inflexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones , the rib cage , the ear , the nose , the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs.

It is not as hard and rigid as bone but is stiffer and less flexible than muscle. Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix composed of Type II collagen except Fibrocartilage which also contains type I collagen fibers, abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycan , and elastin fibers.

Cartilage is classified in three types, elastic cartilage , hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage , which differ in the relative amounts of these three main components.

Unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not contain blood vessels. The chondrocytes are supplied by diffusion, helped by the pumping action generated by compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage.

Thus, compared to other connective tissues, cartilage grows and repairs more slowly. In Western culture , the skeleton is oftentimes seen as a fearful symbol of death and the paranormal. It is a popular motif in the holiday Halloween , as well as Day of the Dead.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Skeleton disambiguation. For the American entertainment unit, see Skeletons band. For the film, see Skeletons film. A horse and human skeleton placed in a display in the Australian Museum , Sydney.

Vein skeleton of a leaf. Veins contain lignin that make them harder to degrade for microorganisms. The leaf came from Magnolia doltsopa Magnoliaceae. Bonesetter Chondrocyte Endochondral ossification Intramembranous ossification Osteoblast Osteometric points Skeletal system of the horse Bone.

Biology of the Invertebrates Seventh ed. Archived from the original on A Preliminary Comparison with Birds and Mammals". As Adults We Have ". Classical Mechanics and Human Movement. The Handy Anatomy Answer Book. Body The Complete Human: The Anatomy and Biology of the Human Skeleton. An Introductory Study of Parent Education. Retrieved from " https: Skeletal system Animal anatomy.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 6 September , at

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