Let’s Take A Trip Through The Digestive System!

What Are Gallstones?

Elevated Liver Enzymes
Virus infected bacteria which appear un-infected but have the hereditary ability to produce phage, are called lysogenic. They often ask detailed questions about liver values, tests, etc so be sure to have that information handy and they can give you some suggestions and their experiences as well. They must be given on an empty stomach, followed by food an hour or so later. This is a fantastic anatomy site with fully detailed diagrams, and extensive information on what each part of the body does. Julie Ralston on Wed, 20th Aug 9: Gallstones may number anywhere from one to hundreds, varying in size from a millimeter to four or five centimeters.

Ron Hines DVM PhD

Understanding Gallstones -- Diagnosis and Treatment

This last type, called a "Le Page cut" is used in making granules from hard pellets, as it provides a breaking surface without much impact to cause dust. Roll grinding is economical but limited to materials which are fairly dry and low in fat. The mill also includes the processes of attrition and impact, although these actions are limited if the material is easily reduced by cutting and the screen limiting discharge has large perforations.

The mill consists of a rotating shaft with four attached parallel knives and a screen occupying one fourth of the degree rotation. The mill is best used to crack whole grains with a minimum of "fines". It is not used as a final process for reducing the size of ingredients used in fish feeds. The "overs" in this system may be re-ground or rejected. The "throughs" may be selected to comply with fish preferences for size and mixed according to formula specifications.

Feeds sifted through a micron opening a U. Hammermill or impact grinding of dry feeds, especially cereal grains, creates particles within the range called "dust", and a dust-collecting system may be necessary to remove this.

An excess of dust in the feed may lead to gill disease, a situation where organic matter adhering to gills becomes a nutrient for bacteria or parasites. The problem of excess dust formed by grinding feeds may be partly alleviated by adding a spray of oil or a semi-moist ingredient, such as condensed fish solubles or fermentation solubles, on feeds entering the grinder.

Dehydrated alfalfa is prepared as a dust-free meal, similar in texture to a sifted crumblized pellet, by spraying mineral oil into a hammermill chamber during grinding.

The objective of feed mixing is to start with a certain assortment of ingredients called a "formula", totalling some definite weight. This is processed so that each small unit of the whole, either a mouthful or a day's feeding, is the same proportion as the original formula. Mixing is recognized as an empirical unit operation, which means that it is more of an art than a science and must be learned by experience.

Feed mixing may include all possible combinations of solids and liquids. Within each ingredient are differences in physical properties. For solids there are differences in particle size, shape, density, electostatic charge, coefficient of friction as represented by the angle of repose, elasticity or resilience and, of course, colour, odour, and taste.

For liquids there are differences in viscosity and density. The term "mixed" can mean either blended, implying uniformity, or made up of dissimilar parts, implying scattering.

As applied to formula feeds, the objective of mixing combines each of these definitions; i. However, it is improbable that uniformity is attained with particles within a, sample arranged in some order of position or concentration. That is only a quality control; goal. It has been suggested that a proper title for a discussion of mixing should be "mixing and unmixing", for during the operation there is a constant tendency of particles which have been mixed to become separated.

Three mechanisms are involved in the mixing process: In theory, the position of particles within a container is determined by chance, and the effects of chance accumulate until they outweigh the direct effects of mixing action.

In the mixing of liquids, chance movement of components creates order or uniformity. With dry solids, chance distribution creates disorder. When disorder is at a more or less stable maximum, it may be called "random". Many factors in dry solids cause particles to avoid a chance or random arrangement. In fact, the result of mixing feed ingredients may be a definite pattern of particle segregation or non-random arrangement. Particle segregation is due to differences in the physical properties of ingredients and the shape and surface characteristics of the mixer.

Particle size may be the most important factor in causing segregation. An improvement in mixing which approaches random distribution of solids by decreasing particle size can be measured quantitatively by statistical methods. In general, the smaller and the more uniformally sized the ingredients are prepared, the more nearly they will approach random distribution during mixing. In many formulae, a decrease in particle size is necessary to attain a sufficient number of particles of an essential additive vitamin, mineral, medication for dispersion in each daily feed unit.

This may require the particle size to be the diameter of dust, 10 to 50 microns. Certain ingredients are unstable in finely divided form and likely to acquire an electrostatic charge. Concentration of particles on a charged surface, roughness of the mixed and stickiness of oily and wet ingredients are factors in causing segregation when very small particles are mixed and when these are much smaller than the bulk of other ingredients.

Mixing may be either a batch or a continuous process. Batch mixing can be done on an open flat surface with shovels or in containers shaped as cylinders, half-cylinders, cones or twin-cones with fixed baffles or moving augers, spirals, or paddles.

Continuous mixing proportions by weight or volume, is a technique best suited for formula feeds with few ingredients and minimal changes. Capacity can be from a few litres to several cubic metres. The speed of shaft rotation will vary inversely as the circumference of the outer ribbon; usually optimum between metres per minute. Since material travel is from one end to the other, either end may be used for discharge.

These mixers may be inverted for cleaning. Action is different from that of continuous ribbon mixers, and may be more satisfactory for mixing liquids with dry solids. These mixers are made in a wide variety of sizes with travel of the outer diameter of paddles from to metres per minute. The screw operates at speeds of to rpm and vertically conveys incoming materials from the bottom generally the intake end, like a screw conveyor, to the top where they are scattered and fall by gravity.

This sequence is repeated several times until a blend is attained usually from 10 to 12 minutes. These mixers may also be loaded from the top.

Results show that vertical mixers are not efficient for uniform mixing of solids and liquids or for materials of quite different particle size or density. This unit is difficult to clean and there may be inter-batch contamination. This can be a straight-sided cylinder or a cylinder tapered at each end. The sides may be smooth or fixed with baffles or shelves to pick up and drop ingredients.

Smooth, dry materials of uniform physical properties are blended best in this type of mixer. A modification of this type is the turbine mixer which is a fixed cylinder with revolving shaft to which are fixed paddles, ploughs, scrapers, or shelves designed to re-pile materials continually. This mixer is often used as a cooker to dry fish wastes and to blend various types of fish meal into a standardized product. They are also particularly efficient for mixing heavy ingredients and for adding liquids to mixtures which would clump or cake in another type of mixer.

Some particle size reduction grinding may occur on soft materials, such as rice bran and alfalfa leaves. A complete mixing can usually be attained in 3 to 6 minutes unless longer time is necessary to eliminate lumps caused by added liquids. Mixer shaft rotation is regulated to provide some centrifugal action, but this must not be excessive. The "Nauta" mixer originated in Holland and is constructed in the form of an inverted cone with a mixing screw inside rotating around the inside wall.

The mixer is made in a variety of sizes from laboratory models, for premixing chemical and vitamin additives, to very large production sizes. It is excellent for premixing trace elements and works very well for adding moderate amounts of liquids into dry ingredients.

Another type of mixer called the "entoleter" consists of a high-speed rotating disc which throws the ingredient charge with considerable force against the walls of a chamber. This mixer functions well to smooth out clumps or balls of compacted ingredients and will cause eggs of grain weevils to become inactive.

However, since it may shatter vitamin A beadlets encapsulated in gelatine, it is not recommended for all mixtures. Although the oil-soluble vitamins. A, D, E, and K, are available in dry carrier concentrates, they may be obtained in pure form and premixed by the feed manufacturer.

Liquids containing nutrients can be mixed faster and with more uniformity than the same nutrient in dry concentrate condition. Therefore, a liquid blender may be needed in the feed plant.

Liquid blenders usually consist of a horizontal tub or cylinder with a number of wires or paddles equally spaced around a shaft which revolves inside. Sometimes the shaft is hollow and liquids are forced through holes in the paddles in a spray effect. Some models have a shaft speed of to rpm while others rotate at 1 rpm. Ingredients such as condensed fish or fermentation solubles, molasses, or fish oils are often premixed in a bowl type variable speed mixer, blending the liquid with dry ingredients.

The usual practice is to add large-volume ingredients first, then those of smaller amount. Unless already premixed, liquids should be added after all dry ingredients have been mixed.

Total mixing time is critical and is influenced by the composition of the formula. All mixers should be calibrated by laboratory recovery of known additives physically or chemically so that under and over mixing does not occur. Uniformly sized salt, graphite, or iron particles coated with water soluble dyes are often used as "tracers".

Each mixer should be calibrated for its mixing time and capacity by volume for best results. The transformation of a soft, often dusty feed into a hard pellet is accomplished by compression, extrusion, and adhesion. The general process involves passing a feed mixture through a conditioning chamber where 4 to 6 percent water usually as steam may be added. Moisture provides lubrication for compression and extrusion and in the presence of heat causes some gelatinization of raw starch present on the surface of vegetative ingredients, resulting in adhesion.

Pellets discharged onto a screen belt of a horizontal tunnel drier or into a vertical screened hopper are air-cooled within 10 minutes to slightly above ambient temperatures and dried to below 13 percent moisture.

Contrary to early belief, finished pellets contain practically all the nutrients found in feedstuffs and additives as compounded. The loss of thermolabile vitamins used in additives, which may be slight or extensive in the case of vitamin C, may be compensated for by extra supplementation of these in the vitamin premix to comply with formula requirements.

Diastatic enzymes alpha and beta amylase present in whole grains and cereal byproducts are still active after processing by grinding and pelleting, although powdered enzymes added as an ingredient are inactivated.

These holes may be round or square, tapered or non-tapered. Single or double rolls mounted inside the die ring on a cam or eccentric, turn on a rotating shaft as friction develops due to the presence of feed between roll and die. Feed is forced through the die holes in increments so that dissection of a finished pellet shows tight layers of feed mixture.

The die is driven by a motor and the rolls turn only as feed between rolls and die develops friction. To make dry feed particles pliable for close compression and to decrease friction and absorb mechanical heat, water is often added to the feed, either as the formula is mixed or in the conditioning chamber of the pellet mill. If water is provided in the form of steam, two objectives are accomplished: If sufficient moisture cannot be added as steam, pretreatment with water may be used to gain the desired lubricating effect.

This was an outstanding purchase. Good, but be warned. First off just to prepare those who are purchasing this product. It took about a day and a half to completely set this up did other chores between doing this, that's why it took longer.

Raclib, May 30, Delivery, Unboxing, and Assembly. Working with the delivery was a little tricky. I got an email notification with a link to schedule delivery. They should transfer you to your local delivery service to schedule. Everyone on the phone was very nice and professional. I got my home gym the next day.

Upon delivery, I unpacked it and took inventory. All parts were accounted for and nothing was damaged. When unpacking, make sure you not throw away the small clear bag of grease. You will need it. Following the direction kept us from making a few mistakes.

Again, I recommend you following the written directions and reference the graphics, parts identification chart pg. My 18 year old son put the frame together by himself and it took several hours. My husband and son completed the cable assembly, seats, pads and cable covers the following day and it too took three hours. But with their larger gizzards, the birds can still make the most of even the crunchiest winter diet! Within 14 days, they showed a doubling of the size of their gizzards.

Red Knots have strong muscular gizzards for feeding on molluscs. A shift back to a mussel diet induced about a doubling in gizzard mass in just a few days. As the knots were fed progessively smaller mussels day 22 to day 46 that are easier to crush, gizzard mass again declined. A switch back to a soft food pellet diet caused a further decline in gizzard mass.

Finally, a switch back to a mussel diet again cause a rapid increase in gizzard mass From: Piersma and Drent Ostrich Struthio camelus stomach.

Note how particle size of material in the gizzard ventriculus is smaller than in the proventriculus due to the grinding action of the muscular walls plus small pebbles gastroliths. The capacity to reduce particle size is related to the metabolic demands of a species. Therefore, particle size reduction is often considered the key digestive difference between ecto- and endotherms that allows endotherms to rely on shorter digesta retention times without losing digestive efficiency, and hence facilitate the high level of food intake necessary to meet their increased metabolic requirements.

In contrast, adaptations for chewing intrinsically increase the weight of the head. The use of the gizzard system has the potential advantages that intake rate is not limited by chewing, that no investment in dental tissue is necessary, and that dental wear is not a determinant of senescence as observed in mammals.

The absence of age-dependent tooth wear might even be a contributing factor to the slower onset of senescence in birds as compared to mammals. On the other hand, the use of a gizzard requires the intake of suitable grit or stones—an action that represents, in the few studies where this has actually been quantified in birds, a relevant proportion of feeding time Fritz et al. Gastrointestinal tracts of a carnivorous hawk, an omnivorous chicken, and 4 herbivorous birds.

Note larger size of crop in omnivore and herbivores, and particularly in hoatzin. Ceca are small in hawks and relatively large in grouse. Although ceca are relatively small in Hoatzins , Emus, and Ostriches, an expanded foregut Hoatzins , a much longer midgut Emus , or a much longer colon Ostriches compensates for this From: Stevens and Hume Over-reliance on the passive pathway provides metabolic advantages and ecological constraints. It does provide birds with an absorptive process that can deal with rapid and large changes in intestinal sugar concentrations.

The passive pathway is also energetically inexpensive to maintain and modulate. However, passive absorption through the paracellular pathway is dependent on concentration gradients. In the absence of a transport system that selects which materials to absorb, this non-discriminatory pathway may also increase vulnerability to toxins, and thus constrain foraging behavior and limit the breadth of the dietary niche of the birds.

Another problem is that when luminal sugar concentrations are lower than those in plasma, glucose may diffuse back into the lumen. Cross-section of the intestine ileum of a Spotted Tinamou Nothura maculosa. Villi are lined with columnar epithelium EP , including goblet cells arrows that secrete mucus. The muscle layer includes longitudinal fibers MI on the perimeter, circular fibers Mc , and additional longitudinal fibers at the base of the villi muscularis muscosae; MM From: Chikilian and de Speroni Blue-headed Parrots at clay lick.

Meyer-Rochow and Gal determined that the pressures involved could be approximated if they knew the 1 distance the feces traveled, 2 density and viscosity of the material, and 3 shape, aperture, and height of the anus above ground. How penguins choose the direction of defecation, and how wind direction factors into that decision, remain unknown. Avian Pancreas tissue Source: The Avian Digestive Tract.

Avian geophagy and soil characteristics in southeastern Peru. Luminal morphology of the avian lower intestine: Histological aspects of the stomach proventriculus and gizzard of the Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis gularis. Comparative study of the digestive system of three species of tinamou.

Crypturellus tataupa, Nothoprocta cinerascens , and Nothura maculosa Aves: Journal of Morphology Journal of Experimental Zoology Rictal bristle function in Willow Flycatcher. Dysplastic koilin causing proventricular obstruction in an Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus.

Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Anatomy and physiology of the digestive system in fowl. Pages in Proc. An histological and histochemical analysis of the inner lining and glandular epithelium of the chicken gizzard.

American Journal of Anatomy An ecomorphological study of the raptorial digital tendon locking mechanism. Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Digesta retention patterns in geese Anser anser and turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and deduced function of avian caeca. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Histological and global gene expression analysis of the 'lactating' pigeon crop. Vultures of the seas: Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue.

Journal of Anatomy Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocoracidae, Aves. Functional morphology of the tongue in the nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes. A tropical horde of counterfeit predator eyes. Instructed learning in the auditory localization pathway of the Barn Owl. The morphology of the bill apparatus in the Steller's Sea Eagle. Wild Bird Society of Japan, Tokyo. Use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls. The integration of energy and nitrogen balance in the hummingbird Sephanoides sephaniodes.

Does gut function limit hummingbird food intake? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Pressures produced when penguins pooh—calculations on avian defaecation. Scare tactics in a neotropical warbler: Gliding flight and soaring. Theoretical Ecology Series, vol. Modelling the flying bird C. Structure, form, and function of flight in engineering and the living world. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design.

Trends in Ecology and Evolution The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube. Between air and water: Use of prey hotspots by an avian predator: Structure and mechanical behavior of a toucan beak. Movement and direction of movement of a simulated prey affect the success rate in Barn Owl Tyto alba attack. Musculoskeletal underpinnings to differences in killing behavior between North American accipiters Falconiformes: Accipitridae and falcons Falconidae.

Journal of Morphology, online early. Le Bohec, and Y. Adjustments of gastric pH, motility and temperature during long-term preservation of stomach contents in free-ranging incubating King Penguins.

Journal of Experimental Biology A tough nut to crack. Adaptations to seed cracking in finches. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc-eating in a shorebird. Optimizing gizzard size in the face of seasonal demands. How do woodpeckers extract grubs with their tongues? Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: Functional morphology of raptor hindlimbs: The turning- and linear-maneuvering performance of birds: Canadian Journal of Zoology Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture.

A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems. I - Introduction to Birds. VII - Circulatory System. Back to Avian Biology.

Drawings of the digestive tracts of A a Greylag Goose and B a Wild Turkey and retention times of a solute, 2-mm particles, and 8-mm particles in the goose and turkey digestive systems Figure from Frei et al. The closed, air-filled spaces reduce overall weight without loss of rigidity. The capillary ratchet mechanism Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: The serrated leading-edge feather of an owl Norberg Vortex generators on an airplane wing.

Fish-eating species like cormorants below - typically have small, undifferentiated tongue because fish are often swallowed whole. Representative caterpillar false eyes and faces.

In some, like woodpeckers, the 'sticky' saliva aids in capturing prey. In others, like swifts, saliva is used in nest building see photo below. The muscular walls of the esophagus produce wave-like contractions peristalsis that help propel food from the oral cavity to the stomach. Anhinga swallowing a large fish. HCL and pepsinogen are secreted by the deep glands see photomicrograph below. Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin a proteolytic, or protein-digesting, enzyme by the HCl.

The cuticle is secreted by simple tubular glands see photomicrograph below. Grinding action may, particularly in seed-eating birds, be assisted by grit and stones deliberately ingested.

The avian gastrointestinal tract, unlike that of mammals, executes distinct reverse peristaltic movements that are critical to optimal digestive function Duke The gastric reflux allows material in the gizzard to reenter the proventriculus for additional treatment with acid and pepsin.

Villi are projections from the intestinal wall that increase the amount of surface area available for absorption. Further increasing the surface area are the numerous microvilli of the cells lining the surface of the villi. Inside each villus are blood vessels that absorb nutrients for transport throughout the body.

Caeca are histologically similar to the small and large intestines and found in a wide variety of birds. In these large ceca, food particles are acted upon by cecal secretions, bacteria, and fungi and nutrients can be absorbed. Lymphoid ceca are not important in digestion but contain lymphocytes white blood cells that produce antibodies Clench At various times and under various conditions, ceca are the site for 1 fermentation and further digestion of food especially for the breakdown of cellulose and absorption of nutrients, 2 production of antibodies, and 3 the use and absorption of water and nitrogenous components Clench The bursa is most prominent in young birds and serves as the area where B-lymphocytes the white blood cells that produce antibodies are generated T-lymphocytes are generated in the Thymus.

Bile emulsifies fats or, in other words, breaks fats down into tiny particles. Emulsification is important because it physically breaks down fats into particles than can then be more easily digested by enzymes lipase produced by intestinal cells and the pancreas.

This 'juice' contains a bicarbonate solution that helps neutralize the acids coming into the intestine from the stomach plus a variety of digestive enzymes. The enzymes help break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

The pancreas also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon which regulate blood sugar levels cells that produce these two hormones make up the 'islets of Langerhans', one of which is represented by the light-colored, circular structure in the photomicrograph below. Hit 'Reload' or 'Refresh' to View Again!

Particle retention time hr. Flamingos use a series of projections, or lamellae, to filter tiny food items from debris in the water.

Wrens use their thin, probing bill to capture small insects. Curlews use their long bill to probe mudflats for small invertebrates.

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