The Lymphatic System

General features of circulation

Circulatory system
Everything in your body is made of tiny cells. Among the chelicerate possessing fanglike front appendages arthropods for example, scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites , the horseshoe crab, Limulus , has a series of book gills gills arranged in membranous folds on either side of the body into which blood from the ventral sinus passes for oxygenation prior to return to the heart. Diabetes, hypertension, smoking and other circulatory diseases can increase the risk for angina. Equine infectious anemia virus. It is normally maintained at constant conditions by the organism so that it is subject to relatively minor fluctuations. These include the surgical marks, marks left by accidental injuries, acne, pox, measles, and sores. The heart is about the size of a clenched fist.

Functions of the circulatory system

Cardiovascular System

By this time, the liver and bone marrow are active and functional. Studies have shown that litter size, the amount of floor space during the growing period, and the number of pigs the gilt, or female pig, is placed with while growing affect the reproduction rates of the gilts. Data from a study in by Nelson and Robinson showed that gilts from a small litter size ovulated more than the gilts from the larger litters. The study suggests stress plays a role in impacting the reproduction.

The amount of floor space has been shown to impact the time it takes gilts to reach puberty. An adequate amount of floor space allowed the higher percentage of gilts to reach puberty sooner than those gilts who had less floor space. The gilts placed in smaller groups bore one more pig per litter than gilts in larger groups.

Still, the environment in which the fetal gilt develops is significant to the reproductive and physiological development.

Fetal pigs are often preserved in formaldehyde [ citation needed ] , a carcinogenic substance. A study found that exposure to formaldehyde could possibly cause nasal cancer in rats, leading to research on whether this was possible in humans or not. The anatomy of a fetal pig is similar to that of the adult pig in various aspects. Systems that are similar include the nervous, skeletal , respiratory neglecting the under developed diaphragm , and muscular.

Other important body systems have significant differences from the adult pig. There are only a few differences between the circulatory system of an adult pig and a fetal pig, besides from the umbilical arteries and vein. There is a shunt between the wall of the right and left atrium called the foramen ovale. This allows blood to pass directly from the right to left atrium. There is also the ductus arterius which allows blood from the right atrium to be diverted to the aortic arch.

Both of these shunts close a few minutes after birth. The monogastric digestive system of the fetal pig harbors many similarities with many other mammals. The fetal pig's digestive organs are well developed before birth, although it does not ingest food.

These organs include the esophagus , stomach , small and large intestines. Mesenteries serve to connect the organs of the fetal pig together. In order for digestion to occur, the fetal pig would have to ingest food. Instead, it gains much needed nutrition from the mother pig via the umbilical cord.

In the adult pig, food will follow the general flow through the esophagus, which can be located behind the tracheae. From the oral cavity, the esophagus leads to the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

Other organs developing during fetal pig development such as the gallbladder , pancreas and spleen are all critical in contributing to the overall flow of the digestive system because they contain digestive enzymes that will perform chemical digestion of food. After food is digested and nutrients are absorbed, the food follows through the large intestine and solid wastes are excreted through the anus. In the fetal pig however, the metabolic wastes are sent back to the mother through the umbilical cord where the mother excretes the wastes.

Other remaining wastes remain in the fetal pig until birth. The oral cavity of the fetal pig begins developing before birth. The tongue's taste buds, located in the enlarged papillae, facilitate food handling after birth. These taste buds develop during fetal development. Adult pigs have up to 15, taste buds, a much larger number than the average human tongue, which has 9, The dental anatomy of the fetal pig shows differences from adult pigs.

The fetal pig develops primary teeth which are later replaced with permanent teeth. Some may erupt during fetal stage, which is why some of the fetuses show evidence of teeth. Depending on the age of the fetal pig, it is natural to see eruptions of third incisor and canine in the fetal pig. Similar to human dental anatomy, the overall dental anatomy of the pig consists of incisors, canines, pre-molars, and molars.

Piglets can have 28 teeth total and adult pigs can have 44 teeth total. Here the Oxygen and other nutrients passes through the thin capillary walls, into the tissues where it can be used to produce the energy muscles require to contract. A waste product of energy production metabolism is Carbon dioxide and in order to be removed, it too passes across the walls of the capillaries, into the blood stream.

The blood continues back towards the heart, through venules and then veins, into the right atrium. Once blood returns to the heart it is then pumped from the right ventricle through the Pulmonary arteries to the lungs, where the waste carbon dioxide can be expelled and more Oxygen collected.

The Pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood back to the left atrium of the heart, where the cycle starts again. Capillaries are the smallest of all blood vessels and form the connection between veins and arteries. As arteries branch and divide into arterioles and continue to reduce in size as they reach the Arteries are blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart.

All of which, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygenated blood. The most widely known artery within the human body is Veins are blood vessels which carry deoxygenated or very low levels of oxygen blood back to the heart. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 13 4: Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: Inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system [Abstract].

Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins [Abstract]. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Evaluation of anti-Candida activity of Vitis vinifera L. BioMed Research International , The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: Journal of Dietary Supplements, 11 2: Mechanical assessment of effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on tibial bone diaphysis in rats [Abstract]. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions.

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Fast facts on grape seed extract Here are some key points about grape seed extract. Some evidence shows that grape seed extract might aid wound healing. Grape seed extract should be avoided during pregnancy. Some researchers believe that the proanthocyanidins it contains hold a range of benefits. Grape seed extract may have a range of health benefits.

Grape seed extract contains proanthocyanidins. What are the health benefits of grapes? This content requires JavaScript to be enabled.

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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ANATOMY