Archived from the original on October 10, You'll receive e-mail when new stories are published in this series. The Cybermen encounter Daleks. The Cybermen were part of the Supremo 's alliance in the war against Morbius. Classic "the check is in the mail" behavior. While having my varicose veins treated, I chatted with my doctor about health insurance. I feel confident knowing my business is with them and I have no doubt that the great experience will continue.
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The agency has access to this collective pool of human resources, but does not have its own critical response assets, such as buses, trucks, and ambulances. Furthermore, our experience in Hurricane Katrina suggests it must now be reconsidered to make it more robust in ensuring that Federal assistance arrives as soo as possible. In , the hurricane season had been particularly devastating.
Twenty seven disasters were declared in fifteen States and two U. The season was especially difficult for Florida, which took a direct hit from four hurricanes and one tropical storm in six weeks. Brown, and Eric S. Blake, Tropical Cyclone Report: Lawrence and Hugh D. Cobb, Tropical Cyclone Report: FEMA conducted coordination calls between Federal, State and local officials, positioned liaison officers at State Emergency Operations Centers, pre-staged emergency supplies and response teams at various locations, and requested the activation of the First U.
C, August 2, Excerpt from this text: This trough, located over the western Atlantic and the Bahamas, produced strong westerly shear across Tropical Depression Ten, causing it to degenerate on 14 August approximately n. The low-level circulation gradually weakened while continuing westward, and it eventually dissipated on 21 August in the vicinity of Cuba. Meanwhile, a middle tropospheric circulation originating from Tropical Depression Ten lagged behind and passed north of the Leeward Islands on August.
A tropical wave moved through the Leeward Islands and merged with the middle tropospheric remnants of Tropical Depression Ten on 19 August, forming a large area of showers and thunderstorms north of Puerto Rico. This activity continued to move slowly northwestward, passing north of Hispaniola and then consolidating just east of the Turks and Caicos during the afternoon of 22 August. The upper tropospheric trough weakened as it moved westward toward Florida, and the shear relaxed enough to allow the system to develop into a tropical depression by utc 23 August over the southeastern Bahamas about n.
National Hurricane Center Katrina Advisories were released every several hours beginning at 5: Advisories were typically issued at 5: The advisories are numbered sequentially from 1 to Advisory 2 was released at Northern Command, written statement for a hearing on Hurricane Katrina: The HLT had begun monitoring the storm the previous evening. The Emergency Operations Center is the physical location at which the coordination of information and resources to support domestic incident management activities normally takes place.
An EOC may be a temporary facility or may be located in a more central or permanently established facility. Throughout this Report, note that events were occurring in different time zones.
Times referenced as Central Daylight Time cdt reflect the local time events took place in Louisiana. Throughout the report, times are referenced in accordance with the source material supporting the text. These advisories are available at the U.
Katrina made landfall at 6: See generally, Robert R. Random House, , Note that statistics for disasters can vary significantly depending on the source consulted, due to both variances in how terms are defined and the difficulty of confirming specific data in the aftermath of a devastating event.
The classification of Hurricane Betsy as a Category 3 storm was made retroactively based on wind speed readings. For general information on Hurricane Betsy, see U. For deaths, see Eric S. For extent of flooding by parish see, Joseph A.
For deaths, see Ernest Zebrowski and Judith A. For other information, see U. It is important to note that the levees protecting New Orleans were designed in advance of the Saffir-Simpson model. The central pressure for an SPH is in the Category 4 range, the highest wind speed is that of a high strength Category 2, and the surge is similar to that of a Category 3.
Army Corps of Engineers to provide continuous hurricane protection from Morgan City to the Mississippi border. Army Corps of Engineers was released in June However, this is not always the case. A weak, slow moving tropical storm can cause more damage due to flooding than a more powerful fast moving hurricane. FEMA granted the State funding in , but was forced to withdraw those funds a year later, due to budgetary constraints.
Despite this setback, the need for catastrophic hurricane planning in Louisiana continued to be recognized at both the Federal and State level. Tammany, Tangipahoa, and Terrebonne. State Representative Cedric Richmond called Governor Blanco on Saturday afternoon after visiting a ballpark where hundreds were in attendance. He worries that many may have thought that the hurricane was still targeting the Florida panhandle.
Furthermore, during the Precautionary stage the Plan directs that nursing homes and other custodial care organizations in the risk areas should be contacted to ensure that they are prepared to evacuate their residents. On Saturday August 27, , representatives of the Louisiana Nursing Home Association LNHA , sitting at the Louisiana State EOC, started calling and emailing all the at-risk nursing homes in Louisiana, checking on their preparedness for the storm and determining if they were planning to evacuate or shelter-in-place.
They were able to reach most of the nursing homes. They learned that the State EOP was also calling nursing homes, as were the local parish sheriffs. By Sunday morning, some nursing homes that intended to shelter-in-place had decided to evacuate. They had previously been told that buses were available but, by the time they decided to evacuate, drivers were not available.
At that point the LNHA made formal requests for bus drivers, but none materialized prior to landfall. In all, prior to the storm, twenty-one nursing homes evacuated and sixty-eight sheltered-in-place.
See generally, Joseph A. As a result of these problems, Governor Barbour asked Mississippi Public Safety Commissioner George Phillips to develop a plan that would provide additional law enforcement officers to support evacuations, especially in the Hattiesburg area. Sheltering New Orleans, n. Pratts] responded no, that they do not require anything at this time, and they would be in touch if and when they needed assistance. The Louisiana evacuation plan called for New Orleans to begin evacuations thirty hours prior to projected landfall.
So public confidence was a little low at the time. I think regardless of what we do in this town, some people will stay. The Superdome was first used in this capacity in when people sought refuge from Hurricane Georges.
Unlike a shelter, there may be little or no water or food and possibly no utilities. A Last Resort Refuge is intended to provide best available survival protection for the duration of the hurricane only. Dialysis will not be available. Persons who are acutely ill will be evaluated and referred to local hospitals for definitive care.
On a daily basis, every person with a chronic medical problem should have a viable plan that has been discussed with their primary physician so that when a disaster occurs, they will have an action plan established which can be put into effect. Governor Riley said the state already has , bags of ice, more than , gallons of water, , MREs meals ready to eat , and , tarps measuring 20 feet by 25 feet.
The figures for liters of water, pounds of ice, and number of MREs and tarps were converted using FEMA conversion factors of 18, liters of water, 40, pounds of ice, 2, tarps, and 21, MREs per truckload. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, http: Presidential states of emergency were declared for both States on August See also, Robert T. Hurricane Floyd did not make landfall until 6: He did the same for the Carolinas the following day.
For more information, see: That same day President Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana. I called the former Governor of Louisiana in And this was Saturday night around 8: But the whole purpose of that was just to be absolutely sure that they understood the severity of the situation and I do remember telling all three of them that I want to leave the National Hurricane Center that night and be able to go home and sleep knowing that I had done everything that I could do.
Department of Commerce, U. The system aims to reach the broadest possible audience by disseminating emergency updates on existing radio and television stations, including via digital and satellite networks. EAS was officially launched on January 1, for radio stations and December 31, for television. While EAS fulfills the same function as EBS, it differs in that it takes advantage of digital technology to permit automation of transmission.
The Emergency Broadcast System and its EAS successor were originally designed for the President to speak to the Nation during an emergency, particularly following catastrophic nuclear attacks. But the system was made available to State and local officials in , and since then has been used primarily for weather emergencies. Coast Guard at its Best Washington, D.
Louisiana law provides the parish presidents with the authority to issue mandatory evacuation orders. Although a State responsibility, it is unclear how the State or Parish law enforcement authorities intended to enforce this order. The Mayor ordered a mandatory evacuation for the entire Parish of Orleans, with the exceptions of essential personnel of the Federal government, State of Louisiana and City of New Orleans, as well as essential personnel of regulated utilities and mass transportation services, hospitals and their patients, essential media, Orleans Parish Criminal Sheriff's office and its inmates, and the essential personnel of operating hotels and their patrons.
The Mayor ordered every person not exempt to immediately evacuate the City of New Orleans, or if no other alternative was available, to immediately move to one of the facilities within the City that would be designated a refuge of last resort.
Have we reached out to them, and have we I guess made any kind of arrangement in case we need some additional help from them? They are fully engaged, and we are having those discussions with them now. It was Lokey in Louisiana and Carwile in Mississippi. But Brown went down as their supervisor with direct authority over them to be on the ground in charge of the entire Gulf Coast response. In other words, he went down on Sunday. He was in charge of this thing on the ground from his arrival on Sunday through the end.
The designation as a PFO, I guess, was a kind of formal recognition of that. I am proud that we rapidly moved over 1. We opened the Superdome as our refuge of last resort, and we staged buses throughout the city to transport people to the Superdome, and set a curfew for dusk. The city also evacuated special needs residents to the state shelter and then opened the Superdome at 8 a. There were thousands of residents that did not leave, including those with means who would choose to ride out the storm like their parents had done during Hurricane Betsy.
When reality set in for many of them on Sunday, they made their way to the refuge of last resort, the Superdome. Louisiana National Guard personnel on-scene reported no evacuees at the Superdome until after noon. A shelter of last resort is intended to serve only as a location to ride out the winds of a storm.
On November 29, , a Federal grand jury had indicted Michael L. This grant program funds mitigation projects to prevent flood loses or flood claims made upon the National Flood Insurance Program. Alabama also requested the transport and delivery of two man Joint Field Office kits to Montgomery. Mississippi requested the pre-positioning of 30 trucks of water with tractors at Meridian NAS and two helicopters to transport response personnel. We do not establish shelters in facilities that do not meet our criteria for safety during landfall.
However, the Red Cross was not against the use of the Superdome as a shelter of last resort. With the hurricane bearing down, the city government decided to open a shelter of last resort in the Superdome downtown. We applaud this decision and believe it saved a significant number of lives. The State declined assistance. John the Baptist parishes. Officials declared mandatory evacuations for limited geographical or flood-prone areas of the following parishes: James, Livingston, Tangipahoa, St.
Parish officials recommended evacuations in Ascension, Assumption and Washington parishes. MERS detachments are designed to provide communications capabilities and operational and logistical support to first responders. Each MERS detachment has a suite of vehicle assets to provide support. MERS detachments also have rapid response teams to provide initial support immediately following a disaster. Since there are still 2, people from the Gulf Coast area missing, it is likely that the death toll numbers will increase.
Summary Asheville, NC, January , http: Department of the Interior, U. Existing facilities that are operational are under extreme stress as they assume even greater responsibilities to fill the gaps created by the loss of so many facilities. Physician offices, cancer, imaging, dialysis and rehabilitation centers, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, pharmacies, laboratories, etc.
For the first two days, [the Louisiana Nursing Home Association] was on its own to improvise and find ways to rescue the elderly in nursing homes. In hard-hit Orleans and Jefferson parishes, eight of forty-one nursing homes removed residents before the storm. Gabriel Morgue whose age could be determined were more than sixty years old.
We always were able to feed our patients, and there were only two days when the staff had to eat once a day, and in small amounts. After that, we were able to contact various businesses and vendors to replenish our supplies and food. National Guard forces were engaged in search and rescue operations within four hours after landfall.
Steven Blum, written statement for a hearing on Responding to Catastrophic Events: Early search and rescue actions of local first responders: HC Katrina Update- In contrast, Raymond B.
Seed, prepared statement for a hearing on Hurricane Katrina: Both sources report that eighty percent of New Orleans experienced some amount of flooding. Post-Katrina, we're at 1, -- so we're down officers. We've had about officers that have either been terminated, resigned, you know, are under investigation or resigned for personal reasons.
For details on the contaminants found in tested floodwaters, see U. Governor Blanco signed similar memoranda with fifteen other States on the same date. Once the conditions for providing assistance to a requesting State have been set, the terms constitute a legally binding contractual agreement that obligates States for reimbursement. Hurricane Response September , December 21, , Hurricanes Annex New Orleans, n. Army, written statement for a hearing on Hurricane Katrina: An inaccurate estimate of 25, general population evacuees at the Superdome was reported by DHS on August The Louisiana National Guard estimates that the crowd grew to 35, over the course of the next three days.
The Governor of Louisiana and her staff also made direct requests to States. In other cases, such requests were made by one State's governor to another. Near the Superdome, I features an elevated four-way interchange, called a cloverleaf due to its distinctive shape.
Brigadier General Mark A. Also see Kathleen Blanco, written statement for a hearing on Hurricane Katrina: And those buses were always staged, or has been staged in an area that has been high and dry throughout every storm that has ever hit the city of New Orleans.
And we expected the same for this event. Unfortunately, those buses flooded also because 80 percent of the city went underwater. Hurricane Andrew in 13, people , the Mariel Boatlift 12, people by helicopter , and Hurricane Rita 9, people.
Army provided ground support at the airport, including physically assisting in loading passengers up airplane stairs and into aircraft. Department of Transportation, In re: The trains had enough food and water to sustain the passengers during the two to four hour ride.
The train could have accommodated passengers, but only ninety-six were at the station because of a bus problem in New Orleans. Also in New Orleans, a man was arrested by Federal agents for firing at a U.
The reported target of the gunfire was a U. While the gunfire did not hit the helicopter, the incident was widely reported and contributed to the perception of lawlessness in New Orleans. Additionally, without functioning jails in New Orleans, law enforcement officers initially had no choice but to release those that they arrested for minor crimes. Coast Guard also deployed personnel to conduct security and law enforcement missions.
Marshals Service to identify personnel, assets, and other resource for immediate deployment to areas impacted by Hurricane Katrina. Marshals and Court Security Officers to conduct prisoner transport operations and provide additional court security and to prepare to utilize the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation JPATS to deploy law enforcement personnel to airports around the country as needed.
Other departments contributed significant numbers of law enforcement personnel as well. See also letter from Governor Kathleen Babineaux Blanco to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, dated September 3, [letter is dated September 3, , but was received via facsimile on the following day]; letter from Attorney General Gonzales to Governor Blanco, dated September 4, approving request ; letter from Governor Blanco to Attorney General Gonzales and Secretary Chertoff, dated September 6, requesting additional support ; letter from Attorney General Gonzales to Governor Blanco, dated September 7, approving request ; letter from Secretary Chertoff to Governor Blanco, dated September 7, approving request.
Governor Barbour of Mississippi made a similar request on September 3, which was granted pursuant to an order by the Attorney General on that date. The Department of the Treasury and the Department of Veteran Affairs deployed thirty-four and thirty-three law enforcement officers, respectively. The Environmental Protection Agency sent seventeen officers to the region, and the U. Postal Inspection Service deployed a total of law enforcement personnel.
Eventually, over 3, Federal law enforcement officers were deployed to the region. Marshals to give them Federal law enforcement authority beyond their statutory DOI jurisdiction. Both State and Federal courts closed their doors.
Berrigan, September 4, , accessed from http: Rothschild, September 2, , accessed from: Giarrusso, September 2, , accessed from http: The Bureau noted that no major difficulties or issues were encountered during the actual transport of the prisoners, though both the Bureau and the U.
Marshals Service noted flaws in the decision making process and a general failure on the part of State and local prison authorities to be proactive in evacuating their incarcerated populations.
The FCO is responsible for coordinating the timely delivery of Federal disaster assistance resources and programs to the affected State and local governments, individual victims, and the private sector. See also Robert T. Senate, th Congress, 2nd session, pgs. It quickly became apparent that the JFO was too far away to coordinate operational activities in New Orleans. State active duty and Title 32 forces are not subject to posse comitatus restrictions, see 18 U.
Thus, while serving in State active duty status or Title 32 status which allows for Federal pay while under state command and control , the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard can directly assist civil authorities in maintaining peace and order.
Lieutenant General Steven H. Active duty forces are authorized to perform critical functions such as rescue, evacuation, and emergency treatment of casualties; emergency restoration of power; debris removal; food distribution; roadway control, and emergency communications.
It served as U. Steven Blum, testimony on Hurricane Katrina: The DJC2 is a standardized, integrated, rapidly deployable, modular, scaleable, command and control C2 capability that provides a military commander with a planning, operating, and collaborating capability.
DJC2 Program Overview, n. Steven Blum, August 31, For a discussion on NCC, see Dr. One-Stop Shop to Help U. Additional priorities authority is found in Section 18 of the Selective Service Act of , in 10 U. The purpose of the DPAS is to 1 assure the timely availability of industrial resources to meet current national defense and emergency preparedness program requirements; and 2 provide an operating system to support rapid industrial response in a national emergency.
As an example of how this authority was used in the response to Hurricane Katrina, Norfolk Southern Railway used a DPAS rated contract to procure switch equipment and generators so that it could repair railway automated signals. In fact, each issue has its own support annex in the NRP.
The annexes, however, provide little detail or operational direction and do not provide clear responsibility for the various roles and tasks referred to in the annexes. As another example, a C aircraft traveling from Sweden with a water purification system and a cellular network waited four days for flight clearance from the U. By the day after the storm, teams were providing medical care and continue to do so today. The mission is still ongoing, with personnel staffing hospitals and clinics destroyed or rendered inoperable by the storms as we speak.
According to an attachment Dr. Kirsch said he took a team to Louisiana to assess nineteen Red Cross shelters and three very large state shelters: This temporary site was supplanted by the physical facility established on September 12, as referenced above.
I spoke to the Commandant over the weekend, made sure that Admiral Allen was free to come down, had him come down with the intention of having him take over at least the Louisiana piece of this in order to make sure we had that under control. And then ultimately on Friday [September 9] I made the determination that I would put Admiral Allen in control of the entire operation. The LECC is a construct familiar to law enforcement personnel, integrating the Federal, State, and local law enforcement communities, but is not a term currently incorporated into the NRP.
It coordinated a plan to answer thousands of calls in New Orleans that had gone unresolved and provided the conduit for coordination between civilian law enforcement and the National Guard and Title 10 U. Army forces operating in New Orleans. Primary searches were visual, with hailing calls as searchers moved through a certain area.
Forced entry into a building was not conducted without probable cause. Secondary searches were conducted door to door in areas where flooding had occurred higher than 5. Damage incurred by access into a building was kept to a minimum and the building was re-secured after the search. New Orleans Police Department officers were on site for all the searches conducted. Department of Health and Human Services reported: Due to the large number of teleregistration calls, all lines are being made available for registration.
This emergency assistance is provided to help with disaster needs such as transportation, clothing, rental housing, other housing accommodations, and food, and is included in the calculation of total benefits for which victims are eligible.
FEMA individual assistance programs suffered from other problems. It was found that for a short time, the National Emergency Management Information System was not configured with system controls to prevent more than one payment per household. It does not provide guidelines for coordinating private sector and NGO relief efforts. Forty emergency declarations were issued in the period from January 20, to Hurricane Katrina.
See, for example, David M. These plans are meant to clearly define the functions of each organization and describe how the organization interfaces with the rest of the emergency response effort.
The loss of funding has resulted in ERT-N teams that are not fully equipped nor train or exercise together. If the melasma does not go away or a woman wants to keep taking birth control pills, melasma treatments are available. If you have melasma, dermatologists recommend the following tips for achieving a more even skin tone:. Your email address will not be published.
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