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Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. Not all people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: People may be very sick by the time they are diagnosed. Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to.


Several things happen when food is digested and absorbed: A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is a source of fuel for the body. An organ called the pancreas makes insulin. This is because either: Their pancreas does not make enough insulin Their cells do not respond to insulin normally Both of the above There are two major types of diabetes. The causes and risk factors are different for each type: Type 1 diabetes is less common.

It can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. This is because the pancreas cells that make insulin stop working. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause of the failure to make enough insulin is unknown. Type 2 diabetes is more common. It most often occurs in adulthood, but because of high obesity rates, children and teens are now being diagnosed with this disease.

Some people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. With type 2 diabetes, the body is resistant to insulin and doesn't use insulin as well as it should. Not all people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. There are other causes of diabetes, and some people cannot be classified as type 1 or type 2. If your parent, brother, or sister has diabetes, you may be more likely to develop the disease.

A high blood sugar level can cause several symptoms, including: Blurry vision Excess thirst Fatigue Frequent urination Hunger Weight loss Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms. These problems are known as diabetes complications, and include: Eye problems , including trouble seeing especially at night , light sensitivity, and blindness Sores and infections of the leg or foot, which if untreated, can lead to amputation of the leg or foot Damage to nerves in the body , causing pain, tingling, a loss of feeling, problems digesting food, and erectile dysfunction Kidney problems , which can lead to kidney failure Weakened immune system, which can lead to more frequent infections Increased chance of having a heart attack or stroke.

Fasting blood glucose level. These levels are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c A1C test. Normal is less than 5. Oral glucose tolerance test. Screening for type 2 diabetes in people who have no symptoms is recommended for: Overweight children who have other risk factors for diabetes, starting at age 10 and repeated every 3 years.

Overweight adults BMI of 25 or higher who have other risk factors such as having high blood pressure, or having a mother, father, sister or brother with diabetes. Adults over age 45, repeated every 3 years.

There is no cure for type 1 diabetes except for a pancreas or islet cell transplant. Diabetes is a lifelong disease for most people who have it. After many years, diabetes can lead to serious health problems: You could have eye problems, including trouble seeing especially at night , and light sensitivity. You could become blind. Your feet and skin can develop sores and infections. After a long time, your foot or leg may need to be amputated. Infection can also cause pain and itching in other parts of the body.

Diabetes may make it harder to control your blood pressure and cholesterol. This can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other problems. It can become harder for blood to flow to your legs and feet. Nerves in your body can get damaged, causing pain, tingling, and numbness. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. To understand diabetes, it is important to first understand the normal process by which food is broken down and used by the body for energy.

Several things happen when food is digested and absorbed:. This is because either:. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period. People may be very sick by the time they are diagnosed. After many years, diabetes can lead to other serious problems. These problems are known as diabetes complications, and include:.

A urine analysis may show high blood sugar. But a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes. To confirm the diagnosis, one or more of the following tests must be done. Type 2 diabetes can sometimes be reversed with lifestyle changes, especially losing weight with exercise and by eating healthier foods. Some cases of type 2 diabetes can also be improved with weight loss surgery. Treating either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes involves nutrition, activity and medicines to control blood sugar level.

Everyone with diabetes should receive proper education and support about the best ways to manage their diabetes. Ask your provider about seeing a certified diabetes educator CDE. Getting better control over your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels helps reduce the risk for kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system disease, heart attack, and stroke.

To prevent diabetes complications, visit your provider at least 2 to 4 times a year. Talk about any problems you are having. Follow your provider's instructions on managing your diabetes. Many resources can help you understand more about diabetes.

If you have diabetes, you can also learn ways to manage your condition and prevent diabetes complications. Tight control of blood glucose can prevent or delay diabetes complications. But these problems can occur, even in people with good diabetes control. Keeping an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent or delay the start of type 2 diabetes. Some medicines can also be used to delay or prevent the start of type 2 diabetes.

At this time, type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented. But there is promising research that shows type 1 diabetes may be delayed in some high risk people.

Diabetes - type 1; Diabetes - type 2; Diabetes - gestational; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Gestational diabetes; Diabetes mellitus. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several things happen when food is digested and absorbed: A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream.

Glucose is a source of fuel for the body. An organ called the pancreas makes insulin. This is because either: Their pancreas does not make enough insulin Their cells do not respond to insulin normally Both of the above There are two major types of diabetes. The causes and risk factors are different for each type: Type 1 diabetes is less common. It can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin.

This is because the pancreas cells that make insulin stop working.