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What Are Macronutrients? - Definition, Functions & Examples
Under Canadian law, a nutraceutical can either be marketed as a food or as a drug; the terms "nutraceutical" and "functional food" have no legal distinction, [3] referring to "a product isolated or purified from foods that is generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food [and] is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. The process during which spermatids mature into fully functional spermatozoa. Email is not a valid email. Create a Goal Create custom courses Get your questions answered. Animal, kingdom Animalia , any of a group of multicellular eukaryotic organisms i. There are also many funguslike organisms, including slime molds and oomycetes water molds , that do not belong to kingdom Fungi but are often called fungi. The union of two nuclei during fertilization.


Muscle Origin and Insertion: Definition and Actions

It fused with another, smaller paleocontinent, Kazakhstania, in the Carboniferous. This composite continent later joined with Baltica to form Pangea in the Permian. A chemical group, often with a chainlike structure, attached to a main chain or ring.

Abnormal erythrocytes containing iron granules in the mitochondria. An S-shaped portion of the large intestine , about. It connects the descending colon with the rectum.

Also known as the sigmoid flexure of the descending colon. Any process in which a cell changes one type of stimulus into another. Most signal transduction processes are ordered sequences of intracellular reactions "signal transduction pathways" mediated by enzymes and activated by second messengers. A geologic period of the Paleozoic Era lasting from During the Silurian, the earliest known vascular plants appeared on land. The first coral reefs formed in the oceans, and fish with movable jaws made their appearance and eurypterids were abundant.

Sinanthropus pekinensis A name formerly assigned to remains of early hominids found near Beijing then Peking , which are now assigned to Homo erectus. It was used to refer to saltatory changes producing new forms in an abrupt, non-gradual manner. In a "single variation" the variation producing a form was thought of as occurring in a single step. A mammalian order that includes the dugong and the manatees.

An economically important genus of weevils, which are highly destructive of grains. A plant sterol with a molecular structure similar to that of cholesterol. SLS Sodium lauryl sulfate. Genus of the prehistoric American saber-toothed tiger, or saber-toothed cat.

Chemical element; atomic number 11, atomic weight Sodium salts are found in body fluids blood, serum, and lymph and in the tissues in lower concentrations. They are required to maintain the balance between calcium and potassium required for normal heart action.

They also regulate osmotic pressure of cells and protect against excessive water loss from tissues. A white, soluble compound used as an antacid and found in carbonated drinks and baking powders.

A sodium salt of carbonic acid; used in making detergents, paper, and glass. The most common form of salt , also known as table salt or common salt; in its mineral form it is called halite.

In salty solutions water is extracted from cells by osmosis , a process that kills many microorganisms. For this reason, salting preserves foods. Salt will also detach feeding leeches and disinfect wounds. An anionic surfactant commonly used in biological experimentation, particularly in preparing proteins for electrophoresis in the SDS-PAGE technique.

A white, crystalline, water-soluble powder with a saline taste often added to drinking water for the prevention of dental caries. The substance dissolved in a solvent. A homogeneous mixture, usually a liquid mixture, of two or more substances.

The dissolving medium of a solution. The cells of the body taken as a whole, in opposition to germ cells. Any cell in the body except gametes and their precursors. The incorporation new genetic material into somatic cells for therapeutic purposes. The new genetic material cannot be passed to offspring. A mutation in a non-reproductive cell. Blocks of mesoderm along the sides of a chordate embryo. Southern for transferring DNA fragments, separated in electrophoretic gels, onto membrane filters.

Used to detect specific fragments by complementary radioactive probes. In taxonomy , a division of a genus. A given type of organism is treated as a species if it is assigned a binomial name. However, there is no general consensus among scientists concerning how to decide whether any given group of organisms should be so treated, since there is no general agreement among biologists on the definition of the word species.

A graphic of all an organism's chromosomes , each labeled with a different color. An instrument that measures the intensity of a light beam of a particular wavelength, both before and after passing through a light-absorbing medium. During spermatogenesis , the immature products of the second meiotic division.

During spermiogenesis , each haploid spermatid develops, without further division, into a functionally mature spermatozoon. Either of two types of cells that originate from the spermatogonium during spermatogenesis and that develop, via division into spermatids. The first of these two types is the primary spermatocyte , which is a mature sex cell that develops from the spermatogonium without division.

The second is the secondary spermatocyte , which is produced from the primary spermatocyte by division. The process producing spermatozoa. A mature male haploid gamete capable of active movement by means of a undulipodium. During spermatogenesis , spermatozoa form in huge quantities within the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

In shape, a spermatozoon resembles a tadpole. It has an oval, flattened head containing a haploid nucleus. A human spermatozoon is about 0. When a spermatozoon pierces an ovum it loses its tail as the two cell fuse. The process during which spermatids mature into fully functional spermatozoa. S phase The portion of interphase during which chromosomes are replicated.

The family of birds comprised of the penguins. The order of birds comprised of the penguins. The genus of birds comprised of the banded penguins. A ring of muscle controlling passage of an orifice. A developmental defect characterized by failure of fusion of vertebral arches, with or without protrusion and dysplasia of the spinal cord or its membranes.

The column of nervous tissue that in vertebrates runs along the back, and that in bony animals is enclosed within the vertebral column. In humans, it gives rise to all the nerves of the trunk and limbs. The prominence at the posterior extremity of a vertebra. A genus of helical microorganism belonging to the family Pseudomonadacea Spirillum minus is the causative agent of rat-bite fever.

Any member of Spirochaetes, a phylum of helical bacteria. Three spirochete genera , Borrelia , Leptospira , and Treponema , contain organisms that are important causative agents of human disease. A device for measuring respiratory capacity.

The study of the internal organs. An angular bend in the large intestine between the transverse and descending colons.

Inflammation of, and resulting damage to, the vertebrae. The type of nutrition is not as decisive as the type of mobility in distinguishing animals from the other two multicellular kingdoms. Some plants and fungi prey on animals by using movements based on changing turgor pressure in key cells, as compared with the myofilament-based mobility seen in animals.

Mobility requires the development of vastly more elaborate senses and internal communication than are found in plants or fungi. It also requires a different mode of growth: All phyla of the animal kingdom, including sponges, possess collagen , a triple helix of protein that binds cells into tissues.

The walled cells of plants and fungi are held together by other molecules, such as pectin. Because collagen is not found among unicellular eukaryotes, even those forming colonies, it is one of the indications that animals arose once from a common unicellular ancestor. The muscles that distinguish animals from plants or fungi are specializations of the actin and myosin microfilaments common to all eukaryotic cells.

Ancestral sponges, in fact, are in some ways not much more complex than aggregations of protozoans that feed in much the same way. Although the sensory and nervous system of animals is also made of modified cells of a type lacking in plants and fungi, the basic mechanism of communication is but a specialization of a chemical system that is found in protists, plants, and fungi. The lines that divide an evolutionary continuum are rarely sharp.

Mobility constrains an animal to maintain more or less the same shape throughout its active life. With growth, each organ system tends to increase roughly proportionately.

In contrast, plants and fungi grow by extension of their outer surfaces, and thus their shape is ever changing. This basic difference in growth patterns has some interesting consequences.

For example, animals can rarely sacrifice parts of their bodies to satisfy the appetites of predators tails and limbs are occasionally exceptions , whereas plants and fungi do so almost universally. Except perhaps for the possession of collagen, the criteria used above to distinguish animals from other forms of life are not absolute. The first catalogs of animal diversity were based on overall form and similarity.

Aristotle and other early biologists regarded all organisms as part of a great chain, divisions of which were more or less arbitrary. The 18th-century Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus divided all animals into six classes: In the early s the French zoologist Georges Cuvier recognized that vertebrates were substantially different from invertebrates, and he divided most animals on the basis of form and function into four branches: Homology is correspondence between features caused by continuity of information.

Homologous structures need not resemble each other; for example, the three bones in the middle ear of humans are homologous to three bones in the jaw apparatus in fishes because the genetic and developmental information controlling them has been continuous through evolutionary change.

Evolution provided a testable explanation for homologies. By carefully tracing selected homologies, it has been possible to show that previously proposed classifications established inappropriate relationships based solely on form or function, or both; for example, the radial symmetry of starfishes is not homologous to that of coelenterates such as jellyfish.

Protozoans were once considered to be animals because they move and do not photosynthesize. Closer study has shown, though, that their movement is by means of nonmuscular structures cilia, flagella , or pseudopods and that photosynthesis in them has often been lost and gained.

Protozoans do not, therefore, form a natural group but with algae form a eukaryotic kingdom separate from plants and animals, called Protista. The diverse appearance of animals is mostly superficial; the bewildering variety of known forms, some truly bizarre, can be assorted among a mere half-dozen basic body plans.

These plans are established during the embryonic stages of development and limit the size and complexity of the animals. Symmetry, number and relative development of tissue layers, presence and nature of body cavities, and several aspects of early development define these fundamental modes of organization.

Although the two phyla in this subkingdom, Porifera sponges and Placozoa, lack clearly defined tissues and organs, their cells specialize and integrate their activities. Their simplicity has been adaptive, and sponges have remained important in benthic marine habitats since their origin. The sessile, filter-feeding way of life shown by sponges has favoured a body plan of radial symmetry, although some members have become asymmetrical.

The shape of the creeping, flattened placozoans is irregular and changeable. The two coelenterate phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora advanced in complexity beyond the parazoans by developing incipient tissues—groups of cells that are integrally coordinated in the performance of a certain function. For example, coelenterates have well-defined nerve nets, and their contractile fibres, although only specialized parts of more generalized cells, are organized into discrete muscle units.

Because discrete cells of different types do not carry out the internal functions of the animals, coelenterates are considered to be organized at only a tissue level. The integration of cells into tissues, particularly those of nerve and muscle, permits a significantly larger individual body size than is possible with other modes of body movement. Flagella and cilia become ineffective at rather small size, and amoeboid movement is limited to the size a single cell can attain.

Muscles contract by a cellular mechanism basically like that used in amoeboid locomotion—interaction of actin and myosin filaments. Through coordinated contraction of many cells, movement of large individuals becomes possible. Coelenterates, like parazoans, have only two body layers, an inner endoderm primarily for feeding and an outer ectoderm for protection.

Between the endoderm and the ectoderm of coelenterates is the mesoglea , a gelatinous mass that contains connective fibres of collagen and usually some cells. Both layers contain muscle fibres and a two-dimensional web of nerve cells at the base; the endoderm surrounds a central cavity, which ranges from simple to complex in shape and serves as a gut, circulatory system , and sometimes even a skeleton. The cavity is also used for gamete dispersal and waste elimination.

Cleavage of a fertilized egg produces a hollow sphere of flagellated cells the blastula. Invagination of cells at one or both poles creates a mouthless, solid gastrula; the gastrula is called the planula larva in species in which this stage of development is free-living.

The inner, endoderm cells subsequently differentiate to form the lining of the central cavity. The mouth forms once the planula larva has settled. Although the details of early development are different for parazoans and coelenterates, most share a stage in which external flagellated cells invaginate to form the inner layer, which lines the cavity, of these diploblastic two-layered animals.

This is characteristic of invagination during the development of all animals. All coelenterates are more or less radially symmetrical. A radial form is equally advantageous for filtering, predatory, or photosynthetic modes of feeding. Tentacles around the circumference can intercept food in all directions.

All animals except those in the four phyla mentioned above have bilaterally symmetrical ancestors and contain three body layers triploblastic with coalition of tissues into organs. The body plans that are generally recognized are acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate. Acoelomates have no internal fluid-filled body cavity coelom. Pseudocoelomates have a cavity between the inner endoderm and the middle mesoderm body layers.

Coelomates have a cavity within the mesoderm , which can show one of two types of development: Most protostomes show schizocoelous development, in which the mesoderm proliferates from a single cell and divides to form a mass on each side of the body; the coelom arises from a split within each mass. Deuterostomes show enterocoelic pouching, in which the endoderm evaginates and pinches off discrete pouches, the cavities of which become the coelom and the wall the mesoderm.

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What are Macronutrients?