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Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic…. By looking at dragon fruit nutrition facts, it is reasonable why it is such an important part of Asian eating. This type of isomerism , which is called stereoisomerism , exists in all biological systems. The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore, the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation , and mitosis i. But some of the new food processing technologies have downfalls as well. Add a handful of pecan nuts in the diet to keep your nutrition meter complete with sufficient levels of minerals, vitamins, and protein. Your email address will not be published.
A skin massage of only hemp oil, would give you healthy and rich skin which looks very young and held. If you are a regular user of hemp oil products for the natural skin care, it acts as an anti-aging benefit too.
Hemp oil prevents skin disorders like psoriasis, eczema, acne and dry skin. There are many hair health benefits of hemp oil as well. Many non-commercial and herbal hair products like shampoos, hair oils, conditioners, etc. Like the skin care, massages with hemp oil products can improve blood circulation in the head and the brain.
Washing hair with hemp oil shampoos and conditioners, can thicken the hair texture and keep the scalp away from dandruff. Thus hemp oil is very beneficial for your hair care as well. Loss of hair is also reduced by using them and scalp infections and problems are kept away.
Hemp oil is an abundant source of alpha-linolenic acid. Alpha-linolenic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential to proper organ function. It is similar to the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, and can help prevent heart disease, arthritis and depression, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center.
It can also help reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol, the "bad" cholesterol that clogs arteries. Hemp oil is also rich in "super" polyunsaturated fatty acids, most notably gamma-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid. Although these are not essential fatty acids, they may help reduce the symptoms of atopic dermatitis and other skin conditions. However, the amount of these non-essential fatty acids varies according to the quality of the hemp plant the acids were derived from.
Hemp oil is comprised of 25 percent protein, says Dr. This high-quality protein provides amino acids in ratios similar to the protein in meats and eggs. The structure of hemp oil proteins makes them easily digestible. Compared to other oils, hemp oil provides the protein and amino acids the body needs without adding unnecessary calories. The daily recommended allowance of hemp seed oil is ml 1 to 2 tablespoons.
To grow marijuna you have to have special seed that grows a plant high in THC, the property responsible for the drug response. Commercial hemp seed or hemp seed oil contains very low amounts, plus they contain a substance that counteracts THC. Hemp oil is an increasingly popular product, used for an expanding variety of purposes. The washed hemp seed contains no THC at all. The tiny amounts of THC contained in industrial hemp are in the glands of the plant itself.
The concentration of these cannabinoids in the oil is infinitesimal. No one can get high from using hemp oil. Hemp oil can be used for the treatment of minor health ailments and as a dietary supplement for the promotion of general good health. Hemp oil is considered one of the most useful natural supplements for the body due to its ability to provide essential fatty acids to humans that we would not be able to manufacture on our own.
However, you should also be aware of potential side effects associated with hemp oil. As such, be sure to speak to a medical professional for more information on hemp oil effects. Avoid using hemp oil for frying. It should be used in cold and warm dishes that are never heated above degrees F. High heat breaks down polyunsaturated fats into harmful peroxides. Use Hemp Seed Oil as a flavor-enhancer in many recipes. Do not use as a substitute for frying oils. Keep bottles tightly sealed after opening and store in the refrigerator or freezer.
According to PeaceHealth, a website dedicated to providing information on an array of different supplements and medications, hemp oil can cause minor side effects in the digestive system. For example, the website suggests that hemp and hemp oil can soften the stools, often leading to diarrhea or abdominal cramping. Many times, excessive diarrhea can lead to increased weight loss or malabsorption.
While further research is needed to substantiate these side effect claims, it is recommended that for individuals with a history of digestive disorders or irregular bowel movements to not take hemp oil supplements. As the PeaceHealth website suggests, hemp oil derives from a plant that contains high levels of the neurological chemical THC.
This chemical can cause hallucinations, euphoria or high anxiety in supplement users when taken on a regular basis. As such, hemp oil supplements can cause similar effects in some patients using the herb for the treatment of any disorder. It is recommended that supplement users not take hemp oil products prior to operating machinery or driving due to the risk of these hallucinogenic properties.
This is especially true to individuals who are overly-sensitive to THC, which can be determined by visiting your medical doctor for more information. Another common side effect that hemp oil can cause in supplement users involves the cardiac system and bloodstream.
As the PeaceHealth website states, hemp oil products can directly affect the anticoagulant properties of platelets within the blood, often inhibiting their very production. As a result, patients who are currently being treated for a blood clotting deficiency or other cardiac medical condition are strongly advised to stay away from hemp oil supplements of any kind due to possible symptom complications. Bridget's Revelations The Natural Law 1. Satan in the Media 2. Natural Family Planning 4. Benedict XVI's Heresies 3.
John Paul II's Heresies 4. Polarized light is light that has been separated into two beams that vibrate at right angles to each other; solutions of substances that rotate the plane of polarization are said to be optically active, and the degree of rotation is called the optical rotation of the solution. In the case of the isomers of glyceraldehyde, the magnitudes of the optical rotation are the same, but the direction in which the light is rotated—generally designated as plus, or d for dextrorotatory to the right , or as minus, or l for levorotatory to the left —is opposite; i.
Fischer projection formulas for the two isomers of glyceraldehyde are given below. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Role in energy storage Starches , the major plant-energy-reserve polysaccharides used by humans, are stored in plants in the form of nearly spherical granules that vary in diameter from about three to micrometres about 0.
Role in plant and animal structure Whereas starches and glycogen represent the major reserve polysaccharides of living things, most of the carbohydrate found in nature occurs as structural components in the cell walls of plants. Structural arrangements and properties Stereoisomerism Studies by German chemist Emil Fischer in the late 19th century showed that carbohydrates, such as fructose and glucose, with the same molecular formulas but with different structural arrangements and properties i.
Page 2 of 8. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Carbohydrate s are absorbed as monosaccharides simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and galactose that cannot be further broken down by hydrolysis or as disaccharides carbohydrates such as sucrose, lactose, maltose, and dextrin that can be hydrolyzed to two monosaccharides.
These simpler molecules, however, must…. Galactosemia develops when infants are unable to metabolize galactose, or milk sugar. Cataracts, weakness of the limbs, and psychomotor delay occur unless substitutes for milk are given. In glycogen-storage diseases glycogen cannot be metabolized to yield lactic acid and energy, so…. During pregnancy greater quantities of blood are being processed through the kidneys, but the kidneys are incapable of reabsorbing increased amounts of sugar.
Consequently, a lower level of sugar in the blood is tolerated, and slight amounts of sugar are excreted in the urine. Under most circumstances, there is no absolute dietary requirement for carbohydrates—simple sugars, complex carbohydrates such as starches, and the indigestible plant carbohydrates known as dietary fibre.
Certain cells, such as brain cells, require the simple carbohydrate glucose as fuel. If dietary carbohydrate is insufficient,…. Carbohydrate s, which are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, are the major supplier of energy to the body, providing 4 kilocalories per gram.
In most carbohydrates, the elements hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same 2: Chemical composition of living matter blood composition In blood: Nutrition cell membrane In membrane cortical cells In cortex diabetes mellitus In diabetes mellitus human digestive process In human digestive system: Carbohydrates enzyme system In vitamin: Fewer rainforests mean less rain, less oxygen for us to breathe, and an increased threat from global warming.
But who is really to blame? Consider what we industrialized Americans have done to our own homeland. We converted 90 percent of North America's virgin forests into firewood, shingles, furniture, railroad ties, and paper.
Other industrialized countries have done no better. Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, and other tropical countries with rainforests are often branded as "environmental villains" of the world, mainly because of their reported levels of destruction of their rainforests.
But despite the levels of deforestation, up to 60 percent of their territory is still covered by natural tropical forests. In fact, today, much of the pressures on their remaining rainforests comes from servicing the needs and markets for wood products in industrialized countries that have already depleted their own natural resources.
Industrial countries would not be buying rainforest hardwoods and timber had we not cut down our own trees long ago, nor would poachers in the Amazon jungle be slaughtering jaguar, ocelot, caiman, and otter if we did not provide lucrative markets for their skins in Berlin, Paris, and Tokyo. Why should the loss of tropical forests be of any concern to us in light of our own poor management of natural resources?
The loss of tropical rainforests has a profound and devastating impact on the world because rainforests are so biologically diverse, more so than other ecosystems e. The biodiversity of the tropical rainforest is so immense that less than 1 percent of its millions of species have been studied by scientists for their active constituents and their possible uses.
When an acre of topical rainforest is lost, the impact on the number of plant and animal species lost and their possible uses is staggering. Scientists estimate that we are losing more than species of plants and animals every single day because of rainforest deforestation. Surprisingly, scientists have a better understanding of how many stars there are in the galaxy than they have of how many species there are on Earth. Estimates vary from 2 million to million species, with a best estimate of somewhere near 10 million; only 1.
Today, rainforests occupy only 2 percent of the entire Earth's surface and 6 percent of the world's land surface, yet these remaining lush rainforests support over half of our planet's wild plants and trees and one-half of the world's wildlife. Hundreds and thousands of these rainforest species are being extinguished before they have even been identified, much less catalogued and studied.
The magnitude of this loss to the world was most poignantly described by Harvard's Pulitzer Prize-winning biologist Edward O. Wilson over a decade ago:. As terrible as these catastrophes would be for us, they can be repaired within a few generations.
The one process ongoing in the s that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats. This is the folly that our descendants are least likely to forgive us for. Yet still the destruction continues. If deforestation continues at current rates, scientists estimate nearly 80 to 90 percent of tropical rainforest ecosystems will be destroyed by the year This destruction is the main force driving a species extinction rate unmatched in 65 million years.
The Amazon rainforest, the world's greatest remaining natural resource, is the most powerful and bioactively diverse natural phenomenon on the planet. It has been described as the "lungs of our planet" because it provides the essential service of continuously recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen.
It is estimated that more than 20 percent of Earth's oxygen is produced in this area. The Amazon covers more than 1. The life force of the Amazon rainforest is the mighty Amazon River.
It starts as a trickle high in the snow-capped Andes Mountains and flows more than 4, miles across the South American continent until it enters the Atlantic Ocean at Belem, Brazil, where it is to miles across, depending on the season.
Even 1, miles inland it is still 7 miles wide. The river is so deep that ocean liners can travel up its length to 2, miles inland. The Amazon River flows through the center of the rainforest and is fed by 1, tributaries, 17 of which are more than 1, miles long.
The Amazon is by far the largest watershed and largest river system in the world occupying over 6 million square kilometers. Over two-thirds of all the fresh water found on Earth is in the Amazon Basin's rivers, streams, and tributaries. With so much water it's not unusual that the main mode of transportation throughout the area is by boat.
The smallest and most common boats used today are still made out of hollowed tree trunks, whether they are powered by outboard motors or more often by human-powered paddles. Almost 14, miles of Amazon waterway are navigable, and several million miles through swamps and forests are penetrable by canoe.
The enormous Amazon River carries massive amounts of silt from runoff from the rainforest floor. Massive amounts of silt deposited at the mouth of the Amazon River has created the largest river island in the world-Marajo Island, which is roughly the size of Switzerland.
With this massive freshwater system, it is not unusual that life beneath the water is as abundant and diverse as the surrounding rainforest's plant and animal species. More than 2, species of fish have been identified in the Amazon Basin - more species than in the entire Atlantic Ocean.
The Amazon Basin was formed in the Paleozoic period, somewhere between million and million years ago. The extreme age of the region in geologic terms has much to do with the relative infertility of the rainforest soil and the richness and unique diversity of the plant and animal life.
There are more fertile areas in the Amazon River's flood plain, where the river deposits richer soil brought from the Andes, which only formed 20 million years ago. The Amazon rainforest contains the largest collection of living plant and animal species in the world. The diversity of plant species in the Amazon rainforest is the highest on Earth. It is estimated that a single hectare 2. The Andean mountain range and the Amazon jungle are home to more than half of the world's species of flora and fauna; in fact, one in five of all the birds in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon.
To date, some , species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region, and many more have yet to be catalogued or even discovered. Once a vast sea of tropical forest, the Amazon rainforest today is scarred by roads, farms, ranches, and dams.
Brazil is gifted with a full third of the world's remaining rainforests; unfortunately, it is also one of the world's great rainforest destroyers, burning or felling more than 2. More than 20 percent of rainforest in the Amazon has been razed and is gone forever. This ocean of green, nearly as large as Australia, is the last great rainforest in the known universe and it is being decimated like the others before it.
Like other rainforests already lost forever, the land is being cleared for logging timber, large-scale cattle ranching, mining operations, government road building and hydroelectric schemes, military operations, and the subsistence agriculture of peasants and landless settlers. Sadder still, in many places the rainforests are burnt simply to provide charcoal to power industrial plants in the area.
Commercial logging is the single largest cause of rainforest destruction, both directly and indirectly. Other activities destroying the rainforest, including clearing land for grazing animals and subsistence farming.
The simple fact is that people are destroying the Amazon rainforest and the rest of the rainforests of the world because "they can't see the forest for the trees. Logging tropical hardwoods like teak, mahogany, rosewood, and other timber for furniture, building materials, charcoal, and other wood products is big business and big profits. Several species of tropical hardwoods are imported by developed counties, including the United States, just to build coffins that are then buried or burned.
The demand, extraction, and consumption of tropical hardwoods has been so massive that some countries that have been traditional exporters of tropical hardwoods are now importing them because they have already exhausted their supply by destroying their native rainforests in slash-and-burn operations.
It is anticipated that the Philippines, Malaysia, the Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Thailand will soon follow, as all these countries will run out of rainforest hardwood timber for export within five years. Japan is the largest importer of tropical woods. Despite recent reductions, Japan's average tropical timber import of 11 million cubic meters annually is still gluttonous.
The demand for tropical hardwood timber is damaging to the ecological, biological, and social fabric of tropical lands and is clearly unsustainable for any length of time. Behind the hardwood logger come others down the same roads built to transport the timber. The cardboard packing and the wood chipboard industries use ton machines that gobble up the rainforest with 8-foot cutting discs that have eight blades revolving times a minute. These machines that cut entire trees into chips half the size of a matchbox can gobble up more than species of trees in mere minutes.
Logging rainforest timber is a large economic source, and in many cases, the main source of revenue for servicing the national debt of these developing countries. Logging profits are real to these countries that must service their debts, but they are fleeting. Governments are selling their assets too cheaply, and once the rainforest is gone, their source of income will also be gone. Sadly, most of the real profits of the timber trade are made not by the developing countries, but by multinational companies and industrialists of the Northern Hemisphere.
These huge, profit-driven logging companies pay governments a fraction of the timber's worth for large logging concessions on immense tracts of rainforest land and reap huge profits by harvesting the timber in the most economical manner feasible with little regard to the destruction left in their wake.
Governments are selling their natural resources, hawking for pennies resources that soon will be worth billions of dollars. In a huge industrial timber corporation bought thousands of acres in the Borneo rainforest by giving 2, Malaysian dollars to twelve longhouses of local tribes. This sum amounted to the price of two bottles of beer for each member of the community. Since then, this company and others have managed to extract and destroy about a third of the Borneo rainforest - about 6.
In addition to being logged for exportation, rainforest wood stays in developing countries for fuel wood and charcoal. One single steel plant in Brazil making steel for Japanese cars needs millions of tons of wood each year to produce charcoal that can be used in the manufacture of steel. Then, there is the paper industry. One pulpwood project in the Brazilian Amazon consists of a Japanese power plant and pulp mill.
To set up this single plant operation, 5, square miles of Amazon rainforest were burned to the ground and replanted with pulpwood trees. This single manufacturing plant consumes 2, tons of surrounding rainforest wood every day to produce 55 megawatts of electricity to run the plant. In addition to this pulp mill, the world's biggest pulp mill is the Aracruz mill in Brazil. Its two units produce 1 million tons of pulp a year, harvesting the rainforest to keep the plant in business and displacing thousands of indigenous tribes.
Where does all this pulp go? More and more rainforest is destroyed to meet the demands of the developed world's paper industry, which requires a staggering million tons of wood each year simply to make paper. If the present rate continues, it is estimated that the paper industry alone will consume 4 billion tons of wood annually by the year Once an area of rainforest has been logged, even if it is given the rare chance to regrow, it can never become what it once was.
The intricate ecosystem nature devised is lost forever. Only 1 to 2 percent of light at the top of a rainforest canopy manages to reach the forest floor below. Most times when timber is harvested, trees and other plants that have evolved over centuries to grow in the dark, humid environment below the canopy simply cannot live out in the open, and as a result, the plants and animals that depend on the plants of the original forest become extinct Even if only sections of land throughout an area are destroyed, these remnants change drastically.
Birds and other animals cannot cross from one remnant of land to another in the canopy, so plants are not pollinated, seeds are not dispersed by the animals, and the plants around the edges are not surrounded by the high jungle humidity they need to grow properly.
As a result, the remnants slowly become degraded and die. Rains come and wash away the thin topsoil that was previously protected by the canopy, and this barren, infertile land is vulnerable to erosion. Sometimes the land is replanted in African grasses for cattle operations; other times more virgin rainforest is destroyed for cattle operations because grass planted on recently burned land has a better chance to grow.
As the demand in the Western world for cheap meat increases, more and more rainforests are destroyed to provide grazing land for animals. In Brazil alone, there are an estimated million head of cattle, 20 million goats, 60 million pigs, and million chickens. Most of Central and Latin America's tropical and temperate rainforests have been lost to cattle operations to meet the world demand, and still the cattle operations continue to move southward into the heart of the South American rainforests.
To graze one steer in Amazonia takes two full acres. Most of the ranchers in the Amazon operate at a loss, yielding only paper profits purely as tax shelters. Ranchers' fortunes are made only when ranching is supported by government giveaways. A banker or rich landowner in Brazil can slash and burn a huge tract of land in the Amazon rainforest, seed it with grass for cattle, and realize millions of dollars worth of government-subsidized loans, tax credits, and write-offs in return for developing the land.
These government development schemes rarely make a profit, as they are actually selling cheap beef to industrialized nations. One single cattle operation in Brazil that was co-owned by British Barclays Bank and one of Brazil's wealthiest families was responsible for the destruction of almost , acres of virgin rainforest.
The cattle operation never made a profit, but government write-offs sheltered huge logging profits earned off of logging other land in the Brazilian rainforest owned by the same investors. These generous tax and credit incentives have created more than 29 million acres of large cattle ranches in the Brazilian Amazon, even though the typical ranch could cover less than half its costs without these subsidies.
Even these grazing lands don't last forever. Soon the lack of nutrients in the soil and overgrazing degrade them, and they are abandoned for newly cleared land.