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Brain and Nervous System
Sweat testing is also done. Many of the common symptoms of brain tumours could also be symptoms of other conditions. This is partially due to this mineral's influence on the nervous system. Here are the top 10…. More research needs to be done on the long term use of cell phone technology before true risks can be determined. This drug stimulates contractions of the bladder and thus helps the bladder empty. It found that the diversity of the microbiome dropped suddenly before the onset of type 1 diabetes.

Studying alcohol and sleep quality

Brain & Central Nervous System Cancer

Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis Keep off the grass Cannabis? Can You Pass the Acid Test? Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects.

Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids The effects of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol on motion-induced emesis in Suncus murinus The Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol Inhibits 5-Hydroxytryptamine3A Receptor-Mediated Currents in Xenopus laevis Oocytes.

Site and Mechanism of Action Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro Cannabinoid control of brain bioenergetics: Exploring the subcellular localization of the CB1 receptor Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors Cannabinoid pharmacology: Can this concept explain the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes Dose-related differences in the regional pattern of cannabinoid receptor adaptation and in vivo tolerance development to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability Endothelium-dependent metabolism by endocannabinoid hydrolases and cyclooxygenases limits vasorelaxation to anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol Enhanced discriminative stimulus effects of 9-THC in the presence of cannabidiol and 8-OH-DPAT in rhesus monkeys Estrogen Receptor Beta and 2-arachidonoylglycerol Mediate the Suppressive Effects of Estradiol on Frequency of Postsynaptic Currents in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons of Metestrous Mice: Importance for development and in pediatric disease The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain The endocannabinoid system in normal and pathological brain ageing The endogenous cannabinoid system and its role in nociceptive behavior The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor.

An Acute Slice Electrophysiological Study Presence of functional cannabinoid receptors in human endocrine pancreas The effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on the metabolism of gonadal steroids in the rat. Activation of the Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Mediates the Anticonvulsant Properties of Cannabinoids in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Models of Acquired Epilepsy and Status Epilepticus Analysis of endocannabinoid signaling elements and related proteins in lymphocytes of patients with Dravet syndrome Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine Cannabidivarin CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole PTZ -induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism Cannabinoids for pediatric epilepsy?

Up in smoke or real science? A Scientific Review CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy; The current Israeli experience Chronic Administration of Cannabidiol to Healthy Volunteers and Epileptic Patients On the application of cannabis in paediatrics and epileptology Parent use of cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: Everyday empiricism and the boundaries of scientific medicine Redistribution of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Acute and Chronic Phases of Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy The case for assessing cannabidiol in epilepsy The case for medical marijuana in epilepsy The Endogenous Cannabinoid System Regulates Seizure Frequency and Duration in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Understanding Cannabinoids and Epilepsy.

Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol THC inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro. Cannabinoids and Cystic Fibrosis: A Novel Approach to Etiology and Therapy. Clearing Away the Smoke Pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant — do they exist?

Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol THC inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro The effect of deltatetrahydrocannabinol on herpes simplex virus replication Cannabinoids as pharmacotherapies for neuropathic pain: Cannabinoid inhibits HIV-1 Tat-stimulated adhesion of human monocyte-like cells to extracellular matrix proteins.

Short-term efficacy of CBD-enriched hemp oil in girls with dysautonomic syndrome after human papillomavirus vaccination. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis Cannabinoid receptor activation leads to massive mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells with potent immunosuppressive properties Cannabinoids and the immune system CB2 cannabinoid receptors as an emerging target for demyelinating diseases: Endocannabinoids, feeding and suckling — from our perspective Endocannabinoids potently protect the newborn brain against AMPA-kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxic damage The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance for development and in pediatric disease.

Anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabidiol derivative dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol — studies in BV-2 microglia and encephalitogenic T cells Anti-Inflammatory Role of Cannabidiol and O in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency CECD revisited: Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis CB2 cannabinoid receptors as an emerging target for demyelinating diseases: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease Exogenous hepatitis B virus envelope proteins induce endoplasmic reticulum stress: Extraction of cannabinoids from cannabis sativa L plant and its potential antimicrobial activity In vitro antibacterial activity of Cannabis sativa leaf extracts to some selective pathogenicbacterial strains.

Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: Evidence from Cannabidiol Treatment The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN facilitates the extinction of contextual fear memory and spatial memory in rats Tolerance to the memory disruptive effects of cannabinoids involves adaptation by hippocampal neurons.

Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Component of Cannabis, Inhibits Cue-Induced Heroin Seeking and Normalizes Discrete Mesolimbic Neuronal Disturbances Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia Cannabidiol, neuroprotection and neuropsychiatric disorders Cannabidiol reverses MKinduced disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate anxiety-like behavior in rats: Additional evidence Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: Activation of CB2 receptors as a potential therapeutic target for migraine: Can this concept explain the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana, Cannabinoids, and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: Implications in Migraine The endocannabinoid system and migraine.

Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: A role for A2A receptors Cannabinoid Modulation of Neuroinflammatory Disorders Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis CAMS study: Role of the Corticospinal Modulation Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: Therapeutic implications in vomiting and nausea after cancer chemotherapy, in appetite promotion, in multiple sclerosis and in neuroprotection The effect of cannabis on tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis The Endocannabinoid System Is Dysregulated in Multiple Sclerosis and in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Therapeutic Action of Cannabinoids in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation Cannabinoid Regulation of Acute and Anticipatory Nausea Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: Cannabinoid—Dopamine Interaction in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of CNS Disorders Direct suppression of autoreactive lymphocytes in the central nervous system via the CB2 receptor Expression of central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors in human immune tissues and leukocyte subpopulations "The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders Nervous System".

Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Growth inhibition by receptor activation.

Facilitation of CB1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission decreases marble burying. Formulation And Method For Increasing Oral Bioavailability Of Drugs United States patent application publication for phytocannabinoids in the treatment of cancer United States patent on cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants.

Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, JWH triggers apoptosis in immune cells: Most people who are sick with, and spreading, the polio virus do not appear especially sick; in fact, if you've been immunized and meet the polio virus, you often still spread it without any symptoms J.

The virus is spread by water, and poor sanitation makes even one unfortunate person able to infect many, many others. Worldwide, TB , AIDS, and malaria are much greater health problems, and people dislike being immunized against a disease they have never seen affect anyone.

For more, see Lancet Ghana stopped mass immunizations in thinking polio had gone away -- epidemics struck in and and ended only with resumption of immunization J. Nigerian anti-Western politicians sponsor an anti-immunization disinformation campaign resulting in hundreds of sick children: In Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, pseudo-Islamic militants kill physicians and their helpers for bringing polio vaccines: China neglects immunization among the poor in its Western area this is obvious despite the special pleading and polio enters from Pakistan: Polio recurs in Syria: Prions Pittsburgh Pathology Cases.

Prion disease WebPath Photo. Prion disease Lots of amyloid "kuru plaques" WebPath Photo These infectious disorders are caused by agents that, to scientists before the 's, seemed to break the rules of basic biology.

It has been clear since the 's that they lack nucleic acid Nature Nobel Prize , Stanley Prusiner for figuring out how they work. The most efficient means of transmission is direct inoculation of infectious nervous system material. Unfortunately, it takes autoclaving, hypochlorite or phenol to render the material non-infectious. By definition, prions are protein-containing infectious particles that keep their infectivity after being subjected to procedures that specifically destroy nucleic acids.

A portion of the prion protein is known to be a neurotoxin Nature By the late 's, the mystery was solved. No other components have been identified to date.

The infectious particles in scrapie are designated PrP Sc for scrapie; protease-resistant and the healthy cellular form itself is PrP C for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; protease-sensitive. The exact sequences change when the infections are passed from one species to another, confirming that the new particles are coded by the host genome. A variety of human and animal syndromes are all really variations on the same theme.

The EEG is distinctive and establishes the diagnosis. The disease is relentless and untreatable, and death results within a year or so. Usually sporadic, the disease has also followed exposure to corneal transplants, surgical instruments Lancet 1: Pathologists treat this agent with great respect. Early diagnosis of spongiform encephalopathy can occasionally be made in humans and animals by examining the tonsils. In humans with bovine spongiform encephalopathy it is supposedly always present; otherwise the yield is low.

Unfortunately, this doesn't work as a way of screening for other prion diseases. Genes for PrP seem to correlate with susceptibility: Thanks to an altered method of preparing the feed, prions were no longer inactivated. That there was an epidemic was obvious by Nature About , cattle died of the disease.

The British had also been using very, very poor slaughterhouse practices, with brain mixing with the meat. The "mad cow" flap resurfaced in , with the claim Lancet April 6, , most of the issue that a new strain of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, with early onset, more psychiatric changes, less myoclonus, and lots of amyloid, had perhaps resulted from the abundance of prions in beef. Later that year, Nature The patients live longer, and the abnormal behavior is more prominent than the dementia.

First apparent transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion: Americans are eating them. Is anybody getting sick? Maybe, but probably not Arch. Nobody even talks about this. Compare this indifference to the media and political excitement whenever anyone suspects a single American cow might have "mad cow" disease.

KURU affected cannibals in New Guinea, and victims appeared to be those persons who rubbed raw brains of previous victims over their own bodies. Motor problems and dementia led to death within months to years. It is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, transmitted in an exotic ethnic group. You will enjoy reading Am. These are transmitted as dominant genes and produce proteins that have a much greater tendency to misfold.

Sooner or later, the cascade starts by itself. The array of PrP mutations: This exonerated the ethnic custom of eating raw sheep brains and eyeballs. Transgenic mice with Gerstmann-Sträussler: Transgenic mice with no PrP seem to be okay mice Nature Read all about it: In spongiform change, the neuropil appears vacuolated "spongiform changes" ; the vacuoles are in the cell processes and perikaryons.

At autopsy of victims of the spongiform encephalopathies, the neurons are mostly gone, but there is a corresponding tremendous astrocytosis, so brains may not appear atrophic. Kuru plaque formers have leucine at codon of PrP. Suggested lab tests on CSF have proved unreliable at best Arch. Everybody would like a way to establish the diagnosis without having to resort to brain biopsy.

Prions are likely to be present in other tissues NEJM Creutzfeldt managed to save all of his neuropsych patients, and some people in concentration camps, from the Nazis. Naegleria meningoencephalitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Acanthamoeba of the brain Great photos Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Acanthameba meningoencephalitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Toxoplasma meningitis Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Cysticercosis of the brain Yutaka Tsutsumi MD.

Cysticercosis Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Cerebral malaria Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Neurodegenerative Disease Click to see the images Duke. Neurodegenerative Diseases Great pictures in a clickable handout Duke. The simplest "animal model" for these diseases is a dominant gene for late-onset degeneration of a few neurons in the roundworm; the effects of this gene are modified by a host of other genes Nature Alzheimer's disease Photo essay U.

Brain atrophy WebPath Photo. Alzheimer's disease Silver stain KU Collection. Brain atrophy Hydrocephalus ex vacuo WebPath Photo. Neurofibrillary tangle WebPath Photo. Neurofibrillary tangles Silver stain WebPath Photo.

Senile plaques Silver stain WebPath Photo. Alzheimer's disease Amyloid WebPath Photo. Alzheimer's disease Senile plaque -- silver stain WebPath Photo. Pick's disease WebPath Photo.

Neurons disappear, most spectacularly in the head of the caudate nucleus. Then a movement disorder chorea and athetosis, resembling a jerky dance develops. Profound disability and death occur after years. Huntington's disease WebPath Photo.

Parkinson's disease Lewy bodies WebPath Photo. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis loss of upper and lower motor neurons ; this is the common one 2. Progressive bulbar palsy cranial nerves are most severely affected 3. Progressive muscular atrophy lower motor neurons only 4. Primary lateral sclerosis upper motor neurons only. Amyotrphic lateral sclerosis WebPath Photo. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis WebPath Photo. Schizophrenia as a cause of death meds, agitated delirium, or the disease itself: Being raised by a schizophrenic mother is one of the strongest predictors of growing up totally confused and being unable to cope as an adult.

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. However, the old story about "high dopamine causes schizophrenia, low dopamine causes Parkinsonism, they are two ends of a continuum" just doesn't hold up to today's neuroscience; there are places in the schizophrenic's brain where dopamine is high, and other places where it is low Am.

And the newer anti-schizophrenic drugs clozapine, etc. Watch for more about D4 protein, which varies from person to person, and the origins of psychiatric illness: De-stigmatize and de-mystify this dread illness -- and explain the hallucinations not as "evidence of being crazy", but as exaggerations of perceptual errors that happen to anyone under stress J.

The more the family misunderstands and therefore criticizes the patient, the worse the prognosis Lancet To control "the voices", try one ear plug, or a Walkman, or singing softly to oneself Br. There was a flap in the early 's about neuroleptic treatment causing earlier onset of Alzheimer's in schizophrenics. It's evidently not so Am. Today there is talk about returning motivated schizophrenics to near-normal function meaningful work, meaningful friendships through cognitive-behavioral therapy, support for individuals and families, and other training JAMA Of all the patient-care specialties, I am most intrigued by psychiatry.

Many other pathologists share my fascination with the life of the mind. I'm not the only physician who think that the drug companies have something to do with the greatly increased frequency with which the diagnosis "bipolar" is being made recently. The never-ending series of old and new health-and-disease crazes are within the proper scope of any introductory study of pathology.

Thankfully, the "repressed memories" business is now history, though thousands of lives were ruined. The craze began in , and ended in I first mentioned the epidemic in class in , and it proved to be as I described. Any doubts I had were dispelled by Psychoth. For a history of this epidemic of iatrogenic disease, see J. Our greatest foes, and whom we must chiefly combat, are within. I think the whole world's gone mad.

It's always been like this. You probably just don't get out enough. The High Cost of Living" Madness may sound romantic to teenagers or comics readers, but in the end it is just a madness. All men are mad in some way or other; and inasmuch as you deal discreetly with your madmen, so deal with God's madmen, too -- the rest of the world.

Abraham Van Helsing pathologist to Dr. Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased, Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, Raze out the written troubles of the brain, And with some sweet oblivious antidote Cleanse the stuffed bosom of that perilous stuff Which weighs upon the heart? Therein the patient Must minister to himself. Inflammatory and Demyelinating Disease Click to see the images Duke. Multiple Sclerosis Pittsburgh Illustrated Case. Multiple sclerosis Autopsy brain KU Collection.

Multiple sclerosis Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Multiple Sclerosis Tom Demark's Site. Demyelination in multiple sclerosis WebPath Photo. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood Yutaka Tsutsumi MD.

Wernicke's From Chile In Spanish. Charles Whitman, the University of Texas sniper, had a glioma involving his frontal and hypothalamic areas. This likely explains the severe headaches he's been having; the relationship to his behavior must remain speculative.

Whitman was the also son of a violent martinet and recorded his struggles to control his rage in his diaries; he was also on amphetamines.

Astrocytoma Text and photomicrographs. Astrocytoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Glioma Don't worry about what kind. Brainstem glioma Don't worry about what kind. Well-differentiated astrocytoma WebPath Photo. Butterfly glioma KU Collection. Glioblastoma Australian Pathology Museum High-tech gross photos.

Glioblastoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Gliosarcoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Pilocytic astrocytoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases.

Anaplastic ependymoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Melanotic choroid plexus papilloma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Choroid plexus carcinoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Polar spongioblastoma Cordouroy tumor Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Neurocytoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Meningioma Text and photomicrographs. Meningioma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Resected meningioma WebPath Photo. Meningioma Pittsburg Illustrated Case.

Meningioangiomatosis Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Fibrous tumor of the meninges Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Coccygeal chordoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Hypothalamic hamartoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Craniopharyngioma Notice the benign squamous pearl KU Collection. Metastatic lung cancer WebPath Photo. Paraganglioma of the filum terminale Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Hydroxychloroquine neuropathy Pittsburgh Pathology Cases.

Acute motor axonal neuropathy Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Leprosy in the nerves Yutaka Tsutsumi MD. Trigeminofacial malignant epithelioid schwannoma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases. Acoustic "neuroma" WebPath Photo. Two phases of a schwannoma WebPath Photo. Schwannoma Looks like a generic benign spindle-cell tumor. Acoustic neuroma Pittsburgh Pathology Cases.

Click on the acoustic neuroma! Gross specimen WebPath Photo. Click on the acoustic neuromas Scan.

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