Get a foot exam by your doctor at least twice a year to learn if you have nerve damage. If you lose consciousness, a family member or close contact may need to give you an emergency injection of glucagon, a hormone that stimulates the release of sugar into the blood. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Hyperglycemia High blood glucose. Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: After many years, diabetes can lead to serious health problems, and as a result, many other symptoms. Ask your doctor what type of shoe is right for you.
What Causes Diabetes?
These are the newest diabetes drugs on the market. They work by preventing the kidneys from reabsorbing sugar into the blood. Instead, the sugar is excreted in the urine. Examples include canagliflozin Invokana and dapagliflozin Farxiga. Side effects may include yeast infections, urinary tract infections, a rare and serious genital infection, increased urination and hypotension.
Some people who have type 2 diabetes need insulin therapy as well. In the past, insulin therapy was used as a last resort, but today it's often prescribed sooner because of its benefits. Because normal digestion interferes with insulin taken by mouth, insulin must be injected. Depending on your needs, your doctor may prescribe a mixture of insulin types to use throughout the day and night. Often, people with type 2 diabetes start insulin use with one long-acting shot at night.
Insulin injections involve using a fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen injector — a device that looks similar to an ink pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin. Discuss the pros and cons of different drugs with your doctor. Together you can decide which medication is best for you after considering many factors, including costs and other aspects of your health.
In addition to diabetes medications, your doctor might prescribe low-dose aspirin therapy as well as blood pressure and cholesterol-lowering medications to help prevent heart and blood vessel disease. If you have type 2 diabetes and your body mass index BMI is greater than 35, you may be a candidate for weight-loss surgery bariatric surgery.
Blood sugar levels return to normal in 55 to 95 percent of people with diabetes, depending on the procedure performed. Surgeries that bypass a portion of the small intestine have more of an effect on blood sugar levels than do other weight-loss surgeries. Drawbacks to the surgery include its high cost, and there are risks involved, including a risk of death.
Additionally, drastic lifestyle changes are required and long-term complications may include nutritional deficiencies and osteoporosis. Women with type 2 diabetes may need to alter their treatment during pregnancy. Many women will require insulin therapy during pregnancy. Cholesterol-lowering medications and some blood pressure drugs can't be used during pregnancy. If you have signs of diabetic retinopathy, it may worsen during pregnancy.
Visit your ophthalmologist during the first trimester of your pregnancy and at one year postpartum. Because so many factors can affect your blood sugar, problems sometimes arise that require immediate care, such as:. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome HHNS. Your blood sugar monitor may not be able to give you an exact reading at such high levels and may instead just read "high. HHNS is caused by sky-high blood sugar that turns blood thick and syrupy.
It tends to be more common in older people with type 2 diabetes, and it's often preceded by an illness or infection. HHNS usually develops over days or weeks. Call your doctor or seek immediate medical care if you have signs or symptoms of this condition.
Increased ketones in your urine diabetic ketoacidosis. If your cells are starved for energy, your body may begin to break down fat.
This produces toxic acids known as ketones. Watch for thirst or a very dry mouth, frequent urination, vomiting, shortness of breath, fatigue and fruity-smelling breath. You can check your urine for excess ketones with an over-the-counter ketones test kit.
If you have excess ketones in your urine, consult your doctor right away or seek emergency care. This condition is more common in people with type 1 diabetes but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. Low blood sugar hypoglycemia. If your blood sugar level drops below your target range, it's known as low blood sugar hypoglycemia.
Your blood sugar level can drop for many reasons, including skipping a meal, inadvertently taking more medication than usual or getting more physical activity than normal. Low blood sugar is most likely if you take glucose-lowering medications that promote the secretion of insulin or if you're taking insulin. Check your blood sugar level regularly, and watch for signs and symptoms of low blood sugar — sweating, shakiness, weakness, hunger, dizziness, headache, blurred vision, heart palpitations, slurred speech, drowsiness, confusion and seizures.
If you develop hypoglycemia during the night, you might wake with sweat-soaked pajamas or a headache. Due to a natural rebound effect, nighttime hypoglycemia might cause an unusually high blood sugar reading first thing in the morning. If you have signs or symptoms of low blood sugar, drink or eat something that will quickly raise your blood sugar level — fruit juice, glucose tablets, hard candy, regular not diet soda or another source of sugar.
Retest in 15 minutes to be sure your blood glucose levels have normalized. If they haven't, treat again and retest in another 15 minutes. If you lose consciousness, a family member or close contact may need to give you an emergency injection of glucagon, a hormone that stimulates the release of sugar into the blood.
Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.
Careful management of type 2 diabetes can reduce your risk of serious — even life-threatening — complications. If you drink alcohol, do so responsibly. Alcohol, as well as drink mixers, can cause either high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and if you eat at the same time. If you choose to drink, do so in moderation and always with a meal. The recommendation is no more than one drink daily for women, no more than two drinks daily for men age 65 and younger, and one drink a day for men over If you're on insulin or other medications that lower your blood sugar, check your blood sugar before you go to sleep to make sure you're at a safe level.
Numerous alternative medicine substances have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in some studies, while other studies fail to find any benefit for blood sugar control or in lowering A1C levels. Because of the conflicting findings, no alternative therapies are recommended to help with blood sugar management.
If you decide to try an alternative therapy, don't stop taking the medications that your doctor has prescribed. Be sure to discuss the use of any of these therapies with your doctor to make sure that they won't cause adverse reactions or interact with your medications.
No treatments — alternative or conventional — can cure diabetes. So it's critical that people who are using insulin therapy for diabetes don't stop using insulin unless directed to do so by their physicians. Type 2 diabetes is a serious disease, and following your diabetes treatment plan takes round-the-clock commitment. Blood Glucose Testing Learn how to test your blood glucose blood sugar with the latest tools. Complications With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of complications.
Medication Get more information about types of medications and how they work. Hypoglycemia Low Blood Glucose Treat hypoglycemia sometimes called an insulin reaction as soon as possible. Hyperglycemia High Blood Glucose Watch for symptoms of hyperglycemia high blood glucose and learn how to treat it. Patient Education Materials - Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, and hand it out to patients.
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Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 7th ed. Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data 5th ed. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. A Systematic Review for the U. Preventive Services Task Force". Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Adults: Preventive Services Task Force. Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 7 October Medical Clinics of North America. Archived from the original PDF on A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".
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