Multilingual WorldWideScience provides real-time searching and translation of globally dispersed multilingual scientific literature. Applied ethics , Philosophy , Religious studies. Changes in climate also heavily impact nutrition through impaired nutrient quality and dietary diversity of foods produced and consumed; impacts on water and sanitation, with their implications for patterns of health risks and disease; and changes in maternal and child care and breastfeeding. For more information about age adjustment, please click here to read a technical note. Global Nutrition Report
Current status + progress
The coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition can occur not only within countries and communities, but also within households — and can even affect the same person over their lifetime.
Poor access to food and particularly healthy food contributes to undernutrition as well as overweight and obesity. It increases the risk of low birthweight, childhood stunting and anaemia in women of reproductive age, and it is linked to overweight in school-age girls and obesity among women, particularly in upper-middle- and high-income countries.
There are several pathways from inadequate food access to multiple forms of malnutrition. Figure 14 illustrates two pathways: Food insecurity unreliable access to food can contribute to child wasting, stunting and micronutrient deficiencies by negatively affecting the adequacy of food consumption.
A diet characterized by insufficient intake of calories, protein, vitamins and minerals will impede foetal, infant and child growth and development. Such diets contribute to maternal undernutrition and consequently to higher risk of low birthweight, which in turn are both risk factors for child stunting.
The stress of living with food insecurity can also have a negative effect on the nutrition of infants by compromising breastfeeding. Although it may appear to be a paradox, food insecurity can also contribute to overweight and obesity. Nutritious, fresh foods often tend to be expensive.
Thus, when household resources for food become scarce, people choose less expensive foods that are often high in calories and low in nutrients. This is particularly true in urban settings and upper-middle and high-income countries, although the negative effect of food insecurity on diet quality has been documented in low-, middle- and high-income countries alike.
There are also psychosocial factors that link food insecurity to obesity. The experience of not having certain or adequate access to food often causes feelings of anxiety, stress and depression, which in turn can lead to behaviours that increase the risk of overweight and obesity. Such foods have been found to have physiological effects that reduce stress in the short term. Disordered eating patterns and food deprivation are another component linking food insecurity to malnutrition.
Maternal undernutrition — as well as overweight— caused by lack of stable access to adequate diets can cause metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine changes in children, fueling intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.
The coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition means that the two pathways described above do not work in isolation but rather impact each other. In this way, the undernutrition linked with food security might at the same time be linked with overweight and obesity. As described, food insecurity is associated with low birthweight in infants.
Low birthweight is a risk factor for child stunting, which in turn is associated with overweight and obesity later in life. There is a need to implement and scale up interventions aimed at guaranteeing access to nutritious foods and breaking the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.
Exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months and adequate complementary foods and feeding practices up to two years of age are key to ensuring normal child growth and development during this crucial window of opportunity. Access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food must be framed as a human right, with priority given to the most vulnerable.
Policies must pay special attention to the food security and nutrition of children under five, school-age children, adolescent girls and women in order to halt the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. A shift is needed towards nutrition-sensitive agriculture and food systems that provide safe and high quality food, promoting healthy diets for all. Last year SOFI pinpointed conflict and violence in several parts of the world as one of the main drivers of hunger and food insecurity, suggesting that efforts to fight hunger must go hand-in-hand with those to sustain peace.
They are also one of the leading causes of severe food crises. The number of extreme climate-related disasters, including extreme heat, droughts, floods and storms, has doubled since the early s. The number of extreme climate-related disasters, including extreme heat, droughts, floods and storms, has doubled since the early s, with an average of of these events occurring every year during the period of — Total number of natural disasters that occurred in low- and middle-income countries by region and during the period — Disasters are defined as medium and large scale disasters that exceed the thresholds set for registration on the EM-DAT international disaster database.
Climate variability and extremes are already negatively undermining production of major crops in tropical regions and, without adaptation, this is expected to worsen as temperatures increase and become more extreme. In many areas, climate extremes have increased in number and intensity, particularly where average temperatures are shifting upwards: Extreme heat is associated with increased mortality, lower labour capacity, lower crop yields and other consequences that undermine food security and nutrition.
In addition to increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall, the nature of rainy seasons is also changing, specifically the timing of seasonal climate events. Within-season changes may not register as extreme climate events droughts, floods or storms but rather are aspects of climate variability that affect the growth of crops and the availability of pasture for livestock, with potentially significant implications for food security and nutrition.
Several countries — notably in Africa, Central America and Southeast Asia — experienced drought, not only through abnormally low total accumulated rainfall, but also through lower rainfall intensities and fewer days of rainfall.
Food security and nutrition indicators can clearly be associated with an extreme climate event, such as a severe drought, that critically challenges agriculture and food production. Of all natural hazards, floods, droughts and tropical storms affect food production the most. Drought, in particular, causes more than 80 percent of the total damage and losses in agriculture, especially for the livestock and crop production subsectors.
In relation to extreme events, the fisheries subsector is most affected by tsunamis and storms, while most of the economic impact on forestry is caused by floods and storms. If a drought is severe and widespread enough, it can potentially affect national food availability and access, as well as nutrition, thus magnifying the prevalence of undernourishment PoU nationally.
Severe droughts are worsening global hunger and reversing progress already made. Hunger is significantly worse in countries with agricultural systems that are highly sensitive to rainfall and temperature variability and severe drought, where the livelihood of a high proportion of the population depends on agriculture and where the country does not have in place sufficient support measures to counter the fallout.
In other words, for almost 36 percent of the countries that experienced a rise in undernourishment since , this coincided with the occurrence of severe agricultural drought. Out of 27 countries with increasing change points in the prevalence of undernourishment occurring under severe drought stress conditions, most 19 countries are in Africa, with the remaining four in Asia, three in Latin America and the Caribbean, and one in Eastern Europe.
The temperature anomalies associated with El Niño show that climate variability and extremes affect agriculture. If we look at increasing change points in the PoU time series we see that many correspond to occurrences of severe drought. For example, for almost 36 percent of the countries that experienced a rise in undernourishment since , this coincided with the occurrence of severe drought.
Most striking is the significant increase in the number of change points related to severe drought conditions in — in which nearly two-thirds of the change points occurred.
In these cases,the PoU increased from onwards, and this can be linked to severe droughts driven by El Niño in — A closer review reveals that many countries have witnessed periods of increased undernourishment over the past years; however, during the period of the ENSO event of — this change across so many countries contributed to a reversal of the PoU trend at the global level.
This association is further corroborated by a number of studies that show a strong link between drought and stunting in children. For example, drought events in Bangladesh are associated with a higher stunting rate around five and nine months after the beginning of the drought event. In rural Zimbabwe, one- to two-year olds exposed to drought face significantly lower growth velocity compared to children of the same age living in areas with average rainfall.
Jurn is actively curated and maintained. Over , teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles. Free Abstract; Subscription full-text. A free archive of linguistics articles, with a focus on syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology. Available in print as Mathematical Reviews.
American Mathematical Society . The Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents.
Researchers have uploaded nearly M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and Arxiv. Chemistry , Biology , Pharmacology. Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts. Meteorology , Astrophysics , Geology. Produced by the American Meteorological Society. Available from Dialog  and CSA. National Bureau of Economic Research. National Bureau of Economic Research .
Provides many innovative ways to explore scientific papers, conferences, journals, and authors . National Criminal Justice Reference Service .
National Diet Library Collection. National Diet Library . Humanities , social science. OpenEdition offers the academic community four international-scale publication and information platforms in the humanities and social sciences. Institut de l'information scientifique et technique . The Energy resource library aggregates and indexes more than 4, publicly available reports, white papers, studies, journal articles, and other materials.
Aggregator of open access journals and papers. Contains more than 1,, full-text articles and 4, journals covering all academic disciplines and different languages. Provides full-text article search, RSS feeds and a mobile application to access the literature. Philosophy Documentation Center eCollection. Applied ethics , Philosophy , Religious studies. Philosophy Documentation Center . Philosophy , applied ethics , religious studies.
Population , Family Planning , Reproductive Health. An international resource, POPLINE helps program managers, policy makers, and service providers in low- and middle-income countries and in development-supportive agencies and organizations gain access to journal articles and other scientific, technical, and programmatic publications. Project MUSE is a provider of digital humanities and social science content for the scholarly community.
MUSE provides full-text versions of scholarly journals and books. The largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health.
It contains over 3. Produced by the APA. An online, multimedia digital archive containing the profiles of feminist psychologists who have shaped and continue to transform the discipline of psychology. Profiles are organized in two sections, "Women Past" and "Feminist Presence.
Based at York University , Toronto, Canada. National Center for Biotechnology Information and the U. National Library of Medicine . National Institutes of Health and the U. PubPsych is a free information retrieval system for psychological resources. It offers a comprehensive and balanced selection of resources from a growing number of international databases with a European focus, covering the needs of academic and professional psychologists.
Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information. Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature. Primary documents from the history of rock and roll. Limited free access with registration. Russian Science Citation Index. Scientific Electronic Library . Citations and abstracts of journal articles and reports from researchers working in the more than 35 distinct professional disciplines architecture - zoology relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm.
SciELO is a bibliographic database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries originally from Brazil. It contains scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format. A gateway to government science information and research results. Search engine for natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. All articles display Altmetric scores.
Scientific Information Database . A combination of an online multidisciplinary bibliographic database, a national citation index, an Open Access full-text journal repository and an electronic publishing platform. Scopus is the world's largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed research literature.
It contains over 20, titles from more than 5, international publishers. It is designed to quickly highlight the most important papers and identify the connections between them. It currently includes on computer science and biomedical publications. Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence . Social Science Citation Index. Scholarly open access resources in different language. Free abstracts; Links to full-text.
Of the program, U. Sullivan of Missouri asserted, " The measure drew overwhelming support from House Democrats, 90 percent from urban areas, 96 percent from the suburbs, and 87 percent from rural areas.
Republican lawmakers opposed the initial measure: Johnson hailed food stamps as "a realistic and responsible step toward the fuller and wiser use of an agricultural abundance".
Rooted in congressional logrolling , the act was part of a larger appropriation that raised price supports for cotton and wheat. Rural lawmakers supported the program so that their urban colleagues would not dismantle farm subsidies. Food stamps, along with Medicaid , Head Start , and the Job Corps were foremost among the growing anti-poverty programs.
President Johnson called for a permanent food-stamp program on January 31, , as part of his " War on Poverty " platform introduced at the State of the Union a few weeks earlier.
Agriculture Secretary Orville Freeman submitted the legislation on April 17, The bill eventually passed by Congress was H. As a Senator, Dole became a staunch supporter of the program, after he worked with George McGovern to produce a bipartisan solution to two of the main problems associated with food stamps: Dole told Congress regarding the new provisions, "I am confident that this bill eliminates the greedy and feeds the needy. In April , participation topped half a million.
Actual participation was , people. Participation topped 1 million in March , 2 million in October , 3 million in February , 4 million in February , 5 million one month later in March , 6 million two months later in May , 10 million in February , and 15 million in October Rapid increases in participation during this period were primarily due to geographic expansion.
The early s were a period of growth in participation, concern about the cost of providing food stamp benefits, and questions about administration, primarily timely certification. During this time, the issue was framed that would dominate food stamp legislation ever after: Three major pieces of legislation shaped this period, leading up to massive reform to follow:. Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of P.
In accordance with P. The program was not fully implemented in Puerto Rico until November 1, Participation for July was almost 14 million. Once a person is a beneficiary of the Supplemental Security Income SSI Program he or she may be automatically eligible for Food Stamps depending on his or her state's laws.
How much money in food stamps they receive also varies by state. Supplemental Security Income was created in The Republican bill stressed targeting benefits to the neediest, simplifying administration, and tightening controls on the program; the Democratic bill focused on increasing access to those most in need and simplifying and streamlining a complicated and cumbersome process that delayed benefit delivery as well as reducing errors, and curbing abuse.
Amid all the themes, the one that became the rallying cry for FSP reform was "EPR"—eliminate the purchase requirement—because of the barrier to participation the purchase requirement represented.
The integrity provisions of the new program included fraud disqualifications, enhanced Federal funding for States' anti-fraud activities, and financial incentives for low error rates. The House Report for the legislation points out that the changes in the Food Stamp Program are needed without reference to upcoming welfare reform since "the path to welfare reform is, indeed, rocky EPR was implemented January 1, Participation that month increased 1.
The large and expensive FSP proved to be a favorite subject of close scrutiny from both the Executive Branch and Congress in the early s. Major legislation in and enacted cutbacks including:. The and legislation accomplished the following:. Throughout this era, significant players were principally various committee chairmen: By , major changes in food stamp benefits had arrived.
In December , participation finally surpassed 20 million. In March , participation hit a new high of 28 million. The mids was a period of welfare reform. Although the Food Stamp Program was reauthorized in the Farm Bill , the welfare reform made several changes to the program, including:.
As a result of all these changes, "participation rates plummeted" in the late s, according to Slate online magazine. The fiscal year agriculture appropriations bill included two significant changes.
The legislation also allowed states to use the vehicle limit they use in a TANF assistance program, if it would be result in a lower attribution of resources for the household. Many states merged the use of the EBT card for public welfare programs as well, such as cash assistance.
The move was designed to save the government money by not printing the coupons, make benefits available immediately instead of requiring the recipient to wait for mailing or picking up the booklets in person, and reduce theft and diversion.
The farm bill renamed the Food Stamp Program as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program beginning October and replaced all references to "stamp" or "coupon" in federal law with "card" or "EBT. This temporary expansion expired on November 1, , resulting in a relative benefit decrease for SNAP households; on average, benefits decreased by 5 percent. In June , Mother Jones reported that "Overall, 18 percent of all food benefits money is spent at Walmart ," and that Walmart had submitted a statement to the U.
Securities and Exchange Commission stating,. Our business operations are subject to numerous risks, factors, and uncertainties, domestically and internationally, which are outside our control.
Kraft Foods , which receives "One-sixth [of its] revenues Because SNAP is a means-tested program, recipients must meet all eligibility criteria in order to receive benefits.
There are income and resource requirements for SNAP, as well as specific requirements for immigrants, elderly persons and persons with disabilities. Gross monthly income is the amount an individual makes each month before any deductions, i. There is also a resource requirement for SNAP, although eligibility requirements vary slightly from state to state.
The lack of affordable housing in urban areas means that money that could have been spent on food is spent on housing expenses. The current eligibility criteria attempt to address this, by including a deduction for "excess shelter costs". This applies only to households that spend more than half of their net income on rent. For the purpose of this calculation, a household's net income is obtained by subtracting certain deductions from their gross before deductions income.
The adjusted net income, including the deduction for excess shelter costs, is used to determine whether a household is eligible for food stamps. Certain non-citizens, such as those admitted for humanitarian reasons and those admitted for permanent residence, may also be eligible for SNAP.
Eligible household members can get SNAP benefits even if there are other members of the household that are not eligible. Each state has a different application, which is usually available online. There is more information about various state applications processes, including locations of SNAP offices in various state, displayed on an interactive Outreach Map found on the FNS website. Additionally, restaurants operating in certain areas may be permitted to accept SNAP benefits from eligible candidates like elderly, homeless or disabled people in return for affordable meals.
Soft drinks, candy, cookies, snack crackers, and ice cream are classified as food items and are therefore eligible items. Seafood, steak, and bakery cakes are also food items and are therefore eligible items. Energy drinks which have a nutrition facts label are eligible foods, but energy drinks which have a supplement facts label are classified by the FDA as supplements, and are therefore not eligible. Live animals and birds may not be purchased; but live fish and shellfish are eligible foods.
Gift baskets containing both food and non-food items "are not eligible for purchase with SNAP benefits if the value of the non-food items exceeds 50 percent of the purchase price. Items such as birthday and other special occasion cakes are eligible as long as the value of non-edible decorations does not exceed 50 percent of the price.
States are allowed under federal law to administer SNAP in different ways. SNAP's statutes, regulations, and waivers provide State agencies with various policy options. Modernization and technology have provided States with new opportunities and options in administering the program.