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The campaign is hiding him away after his latest gaffe. This first global effort was further developed in ; two expert groups of academic scientists and industry representatives made recommendations for the evaluation and validation of probiotic health claims. I am observing innovative combinations of bioflavonoids having remarkable effects in a combined approach to cancer. Obama did not lie nor mislead about their association. Unfortunately, it's true that vaccines can potentially cause unwanted problems, as outlined even by the CDC's Vaccine Adverse Event reports. In addition to individual contributions, Mrs. Such an event would have been counter-productive.

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In Europe, EFSA has adopted a premarket system for safety assessment of microbial species used in food and feed productions, to set priorities for the need of risk assessment. Finally, probiotics must be supplied in adequate numbers, which may be defined as the number able to trigger the targeted effect on the host. Probiotics have received renewed attention in the 21st century from product manufacturers, research studies, and consumers. The history of probiotics can be traced to the first use of cheese and fermented products, that were well known to the Greeks and Romans who recommended their consumption.

The original modern hypothesis of the positive role played by certain bacteria was first introduced by Russian scientist and Nobel laureate Élie Metchnikoff , who in suggested that it would be possible to modify the gut microbiota and to replace harmful microbes with useful microbes.

Proteolytic bacteria such as clostridia , which are part of the normal gut microbiota, produce toxic substances including phenols , indols , and ammonia from the digestion of proteins.

According to Metchnikoff, these compounds were responsible for what he called intestinal autointoxication , which would cause the physical changes associated with old age.

It was at that time known that milk fermented with lactic-acid bacteria inhibits the growth of proteolytic bacteria because of the low pH produced by the fermentation of lactose. Metchnikoff had also observed that certain rural populations in Europe, for example in Bulgaria and the Russian steppes, who lived largely on milk fermented by lactic-acid bacteria were exceptionally long lived.

Based on these observations, Metchnikoff proposed that consumption of fermented milk would "seed" the intestine with harmless lactic-acid bacteria and decrease the intestinal pH, and that this would suppress the growth of proteolytic bacteria. Metchnikoff himself introduced in his diet sour milk fermented with the bacteria he called "Bulgarian Bacillus" and believed his health benefited.

Friends in Paris soon followed his example and physicians began prescribing the sour-milk diet for their patients. Bifidobacteria were first isolated from a breast-fed infant by Henry Tissier, who also worked at the Pasteur Institute. The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis [32] was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium.

Tissier found that bifidobacteria are dominant in the gut microbiota of breast-fed babies and he observed clinical benefits from treating diarrhea in infants with bifidobacteria. The claimed effect was bifidobacterial displacement of proteolytic bacteria causing the disease. During an outbreak of shigellosis in , German professor Alfred Nissle isolated a strain of Escherichia coli from the feces of a soldier who was not affected by the disease.

In , Rettger and Cheplin reported that Metchnikoff's "Bulgarian Bacillus", later called Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. They observed changes in composition of fecal microbiota, which they described as "transformation of the intestinal flora ". In certain strains of L. Contrasting antibiotics, probiotics were defined as microbially derived factors that stimulate the growth of other microorganisms. In Roy Fuller suggested a definition of probiotics that has been widely used: The term "probiotic" originally referred to microorganisms that have effects on other microorganisms.

The term was used again [37] to describe tissue extracts that stimulated microbial growth. The term probiotics was taken up by Parker, [38] who defined the concept as, "Organisms and substances that have a beneficial effect on the host animal by contributing to its intestinal microbial balance. Fuller described probiotics as a "live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. In the following decades, intestinal lactic acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as probiotics, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Lactobacillus casei , and Lactobacillus johnsonii.

The European Food Safety Authority has rejected all petitions by commercial manufacturers for health claims on probiotic products in Europe due to insufficient research, and thus inconclusive proof of effectiveness. In the United States, where food product labeling requires language approval by the FDA, probiotic manufacturers have received warning letters for making disease or treatment claims.

Probiotics have been the subject of research to see whether the health claims made for them have any supporting evidence. Recent developments of high-throughput sequencing technology and the consequent progresses of metagenomics represent a new approach for the future of probiotics research. Studies are examining whether probiotics affect mechanisms of intestinal inflammation, [45] diarrhea , [46] or urogenital infections.

Research into the potential health effects of supplemental probiotics has included the molecular biology and genomics of Lactobacillus in immune function, cancer, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea , travellers' diarrhea, pediatric diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease , and irritable bowel syndrome. Although research does suggest that the relationship between the gut microbiota and humans is a mutualistic relationship, [52] very little evidence supports claims that probiotic dietary supplements have any health benefits.

Claims that some lactobacilli may contribute to weight gain in some humans [54] [55] remain controversial. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health , "Although some probiotics have shown promise in research studies, strong scientific evidence to support specific uses of probiotics for most health conditions is lacking.

Probiotics are ineffective in preventing allergies in children, with the possible exception of eczema. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy. These microbial community alterations result in changes in carbohydrate metabolism , with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and osmotic diarrhea as a result.

The Cochrane review concluded that the evidence gathered suggested a protective effect of some probiotics in this condition in children. Probiotic treatment might reduce the incidence and severity of AAD as indicated in several meta-analyses. The potential efficacy of probiotic AAD prevention depends on the probiotic strains and dosage.

Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species found in the healthy vagina to cure the infection of bacteria causing bacterial vaginosis.

Currently, the success of such treatment has been mixed since the use of probiotics to restore healthy populations of Lactobacillus has not been standardized. Often, standard antibiotic treatment is used at the same time that probiotics are being tested. In addition, some groups of women respond to treatment based upon ethnicity, age, number of sexual partners, pregnancy, and the pathogens causing bacterial vaginosis.

The consumption of probiotics may modestly help to control high blood pressure. Preliminary human and animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some strains of lactic acid bacteria LAB for reducing serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut , thus inhibiting its reabsorption where it enters the blood as cholesterol. A meta-analysis that included five double-blind trials examining the short-term 2—8 weeks effects of a yogurt with probiotic strains on serum cholesterol levels found a minor change of 8.

A slightly longer study evaluating the effect of a yogurt with probiotic strains on 29 subjects over six months found no statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol or LDL values.

Probiotics are commonly given to breast-feeding mothers and their young children to prevent eczema, but some doubt exists over the strength of evidence supporting this effect.

Some strains of lactic acid bacteria may affect Helicobacter pylori infections which may cause peptic ulcers in adults when used in combination with standard medical treatments, but no standard in medical practice or regulatory approval exists for such treatment. Some strains of lactic acid bacteria LAB may affect pathogens by means of competitive inhibition i.

A large study demonstrated that probiotics may decrease dental caries in children. Some strains of LAB may modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function.

Probiotics are being studied for their potential to influence inflammatory bowel disease. There is some evidence to support their use in conjunction with standard medications in treating ulcerative colitis and no evidence of their efficacy in treating Crohn's disease. A live formulation of lyophilized Bifidobacterium breve , Bifidobacterium longum , Bifidobacterium infantis , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus paracasei , Lactobacillus bulgaricus , and Streptococcus thermophilus VSL 3 has shown effectiveness in the small clinical trials, some of which were not randomized nor double-blinded, that had been done as of ; more high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine safety and effectiveness.

Probiotics are under study for their potential to affect irritable bowel syndrome , although uncertainty remains around which type of probiotic works best, and around the size of possible effect. Ingestion of certain active strains may help lactose-intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than they would otherwise have tolerated.

There was no change in physical activity, just less food. Researchers measured body weight, body fat and waist girths. They also took blood samples. Measures were taken before dieting week 0 , right after the dieting week 8 , and 6 months later 32 weeks. They lost an average of 1. This may seem self-evident and not that interesting… until you look at their blood samples. Somehow losing weight is correlated to drops in leptin and insulin. Figure 1 below compares the differences between the two groups.

Six month after the diet ended, this split continued. About half the group lost more weight; half the group re-gained the weight they lost. Blood levels of leptin and ghrelin were correlated to weight loss or regain — and this effect often depended on sex. Figure 2 shows the changes in hormone levels between weight maintainers WM and weight regainers WR at the start of the diet 0 weeks , end of the diet 8 weeks , and 6 months later 32 weeks.

WRs are indicated by the red lines; WMs are the black lines with circles. The biggest hurdle dieters face is weight regain — and dealing with it is a daunting prospect. Appetite is controlled by a host of complex, interacting factors. This study suggests that the hormonal mechanisms may be different for men and women — and among men and women.

However, there were also important differences within groups as well. Some men lost weight while others regained it.

Some women lost weight while others regained it. Not so in this study. This suggests that in obese people, leptin and ghrelin signals may not always work in ways that we expect. Obesity can disrupt normal appetite signalling. Metabolic endocrinology appears to be only slightly more complicated than a nuclear reactor and brain surgery combined. No single hormone controls body composition, appetite, and hunger — and your individual hormonal profile may be relatively unique.

They were probably hungrier while losing that weight. A few things that likely are contributing to weight regain are that this was a diet. Reduce calories for 8 weeks, lose the weight, then hope things work out for you. Obviously since it worked for some people, this method has some merit. The macronutrient breakdown of this diet could also be relevant.

We might see different hormonal effects with, say, a low-carb, high-fat, high-protein diet. These features eliminate impurities and reduce odor for fresher air. The Sunbeam cool mist humidifier is treated with antimicrobial properties to help protect against bacterial growth.

Maintenance is always simple with its removable tank for refilling and cleaning. The device also has a filter reminder dial and two speed setting for ease of operation, up to a hour run time per tank and an auto shut-off option. About This Item Fresh mist is dispersed into the air Provides maximum comfort and a healthy environment. It was time to replace my bedroom humidifier that was over 15 years old and no one made the wick filters to fit it any longer. Living in the Midwest just 4 miles from Lake Michigan the winters can get very snowy, cold and dry.

I have had sinus problems almost all my life and have to have a good working humidifier in my bedroom and also the house. I had reservations about this Sunbeam Cool Mist since the price was so low but am sure glad I took the chance!

One feature it has that I didn't realize at the time of purchase is a small wheel type dial under the speed control setting that allows you to "dial" in the month your in.

I'm still not sure if that is for water flow or just a "gadget" that may or may not change the way it works but have it set now on "Oct" and its working great. There are 2 speed setting on this unit and it uses a oval type wick filter see which I purchased below. This makes all the difference in the world to me when I sleep and especially when I wake up, no more sinus pain: MrSmokeyJoe, October 20, I bought this item at a Walmart store I have been using the humidifier for 4 weeks.

It does not release a mist at all. However, this morning I woke up with a bloody nose so decided to check the filter.

To my surprise I saw black mold. I am attaching a picture. Do not buy this item. I will be trying to return this. Anonymous, March 6, Small, Quiet, Awkward, Time-Waster. Although this humidifier is quiet, it had to have a smaller motor and fan blades to achieve quietness. That's the reason one gallon of water will last 24 hours. It does not achieve the same level of humidity as the older, larger Sunbeam humidifier we have in the bedroom. So far, the fan doesn't rattle like the other old one it replaced.

The handles are formed into the translucent tank, making it awkward to handle. A handle on top might have worked better--like the older, larger units. The fill cap is large and difficult to seat properly to screw it back on the tank. The instructions have information about some kind of tablet to put into a cage on the bottom of the fill cap, but that information was not in the description of the unit on Walmart's website.

The box included no tablet sample. I think the tablets have to be ordered directly from Sunbeam. Finally, the instructions call for completely emptying and cleaning this unit daily, a time-consuming chore I would reserve for my enemies if I had some.

Nitpicker3, January 29, I have owned a lot of humdifiers and so far this model has been excellent. I feel these type of units are the way to go.

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