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RES cells are the immune system components that devour foreign organisms without leaving their original sites in the liver, spleen and other tissues of the body. Once a person has developed cancer, even though treatments get it into remission, it will recur again unless the body conditions that allowed it to develop in the first place are corrected. There are many causes of scalp hair loss. When the immune system is built up so far, it gets back control of cancer cells, and they do an about face and start cleaning up the mess they've made. These examples of spontaneous regression demonstrate the power of the human immune system. The information contained in this article is not offered as cures, prescriptions, diagnoses, or a means of diagnosis to different conditions.
With infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population, vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed. Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, while many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of micro-organisms, including harmless toxin components. The immune system is a remarkably effective structure that incorporates specificity, inducibility and adaptation.
Failures of host defense do occur, however, and fall into three broad categories: Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive. The ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens is diminished in both the young and the elderly , with immune responses beginning to decline at around 50 years of age due to immunosenescence. Additionally, the loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation or surgical removal results in severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection.
Immunodeficiencies can also be inherited or ' acquired'. AIDS and some types of cancer cause acquired immunodeficiency. Overactive immune responses comprise the other end of immune dysfunction, particularly the autoimmune disorders. Here, the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self, and attacks part of the body. Under normal circumstances, many T cells and antibodies react with "self" peptides.
Hypersensitivity is an immune response that damages the body's own tissues. Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy.
Symptoms can range from mild discomfort to death. Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE , which triggers degranulation of mast cells and basophils when cross-linked by antigen. This is also called antibody-dependent or cytotoxic hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies. Type IV reactions are involved in many autoimmune and infectious diseases, but may also involve contact dermatitis poison ivy.
These reactions are mediated by T cells , monocytes , and macrophages. Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection,  but it can appear without known cause.
It is likely that a multicomponent, adaptive immune system arose with the first vertebrates , as invertebrates do not generate lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral response. Immune systems appear even in the structurally most simple forms of life, with bacteria using a unique defense mechanism, called the restriction modification system to protect themselves from viral pathogens, called bacteriophages.
Pattern recognition receptors are proteins used by nearly all organisms to identify molecules associated with pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides called defensins are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all animals and plants, and represent the main form of invertebrate systemic immunity.
Ribonucleases and the RNA interference pathway are conserved across all eukaryotes , and are thought to play a role in the immune response to viruses. Unlike animals, plants lack phagocytic cells, but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant.
Systemic acquired resistance SAR is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a particular infectious agent. Another important role of the immune system is to identify and eliminate tumors. This is called immune surveillance. The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. To the immune system, these antigens appear foreign, and their presence causes immune cells to attack the transformed tumor cells. The antigens expressed by tumors have several sources;  some are derived from oncogenic viruses like human papillomavirus , which causes cervical cancer ,  while others are the organism's own proteins that occur at low levels in normal cells but reach high levels in tumor cells.
One example is an enzyme called tyrosinase that, when expressed at high levels, transforms certain skin cells e.
The main response of the immune system to tumors is to destroy the abnormal cells using killer T cells, sometimes with the assistance of helper T cells. This allows killer T cells to recognize the tumor cell as abnormal.
Clearly, some tumors evade the immune system and go on to become cancers. Paradoxically, macrophages can promote tumor growth  when tumor cells send out cytokines that attract macrophages, which then generate cytokines and growth factors such as tumor-necrosis factor alpha that nurture tumor development or promote stem-cell-like plasticity.
The immune system is involved in many aspects of physiological regulation in the body. The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine   and the nervous    systems. The immune system also plays a crucial role in embryogenesis development of the embryo , as well as in tissue repair and regeneration. Hormones can act as immunomodulators , altering the sensitivity of the immune system.
For example, female sex hormones are known immunostimulators of both adaptive  and innate immune responses.
By contrast, male sex hormones such as testosterone seem to be immunosuppressive. When a T-cell encounters a foreign pathogen , it extends a vitamin D receptor. This is essentially a signaling device that allows the T-cell to bind to the active form of vitamin D , the steroid hormone calcitriol.
T-cells have a symbiotic relationship with vitamin D. Not only does the T-cell extend a vitamin D receptor, in essence asking to bind to the steroid hormone version of vitamin D, calcitriol, but the T-cell expresses the gene CYP27B1 , which is the gene responsible for converting the pre-hormone version of vitamin D, calcidiol into the steroid hormone version, calcitriol.
Only after binding to calcitriol can T-cells perform their intended function. Other immune system cells that are known to express CYP27B1 and thus activate vitamin D calcidiol, are dendritic cells , keratinocytes and macrophages.
It is conjectured that a progressive decline in hormone levels with age is partially responsible for weakened immune responses in aging individuals. As people age, two things happen that negatively affect their vitamin D levels. First, they stay indoors more due to decreased activity levels. This means that they get less sun and therefore produce less cholecalciferol via UVB radiation. Second, as a person ages the skin becomes less adept at producing vitamin D.
The immune system is affected by sleep and rest,  and sleep deprivation is detrimental to immune function. When suffering from sleep deprivation, active immunizations may have a diminished effect and may result in lower antibody production, and a lower immune response, than would be noted in a well-rested individual.
Additionally, proteins such as NFIL3 , which have been shown to be closely intertwined with both T-cell differentiation and our circadian rhythms, can be affected through the disturbance of natural light and dark cycles through instances of sleep deprivation, shift work, etc.
As a result, these disruptions can lead to an increase in chronic conditions such as heart disease, chronic pain, and asthma. In addition to the negative consequences of sleep deprivation, sleep and the intertwined circadian system have been shown to have strong regulatory effects on immunological functions affecting both the innate and the adaptive immunity. First, during the early slow-wave-sleep stage, a sudden drop in blood levels of cortisol , epinephrine , and norepinephrine induce increased blood levels of the hormones leptin, pituitary growth hormone, and prolactin.
These signals induce a pro-inflammatory state through the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin , TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. These cytokines then stimulate immune functions such as immune cells activation, proliferation, and differentiation. It is during this time that undifferentiated, or less differentiated, like naïve and central memory T cells, peak i.
This milieu is also thought to support the formation of long-lasting immune memory through the initiation of Th1 immune responses. In contrast, during wake periods differentiated effector cells, such as cytotoxic natural killer cells and CTLs cytotoxic T lymphocytes , peak in order to elicit an effective response against any intruding pathogens.
As well during awake active times, anti-inflammatory molecules, such as cortisol and catecholamines , peak. There are two theories as to why the pro-inflammatory state is reserved for sleep time. First, inflammation would cause serious cognitive and physical impairments if it were to occur during wake times. Second, inflammation may occur during sleep times due to the presence of melatonin. Inflammation causes a great deal of oxidative stress and the presence of melatonin during sleep times could actively counteract free radical production during this time.
Overnutrition is associated with diseases such as diabetes and obesity , which are known to affect immune function. More moderate malnutrition, as well as certain specific trace mineral and nutrient deficiencies, can also compromise the immune response.
Foods rich in certain fatty acids may foster a healthy immune system. The immune system, particularly the innate component, plays a decisive role in tissue repair after an insult. The plasticity of immune cells and the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals are crucial aspects of efficient tissue repair. According to one hypothesis, organisms that can regenerate could be less immunocompetent than organisms that cannot regenerate. The immune response can be manipulated to suppress unwanted responses resulting from autoimmunity, allergy, and transplant rejection , and to stimulate protective responses against pathogens that largely elude the immune system see immunization or cancer.
Immunosuppressive drugs are used to control autoimmune disorders or inflammation when excessive tissue damage occurs, and to prevent transplant rejection after an organ transplant. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to control the effects of inflammation. Glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs; however, these drugs can have many undesirable side effects , such as central obesity , hyperglycemia , osteoporosis , and their use must be tightly controlled. Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the immune response by killing dividing cells such as activated T cells.
However, the killing is indiscriminate and other constantly dividing cells and their organs are affected, which causes toxic side effects.
Cancer immunotherapy covers the medical ways to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer tumours. Immunology is strongly experimental in everyday practice but is also characterized by an ongoing theoretical attitude.
Many theories have been suggested in immunology from the end of the nineteenth century up to the present time. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century saw a battle between "cellular" and "humoral" theories of immunity. In the mids, Frank Burnet , inspired by a suggestion made by Niels Jerne ,  formulated the clonal selection theory CST of immunity.
More recently, several theoretical frameworks have been suggested in immunology, including " autopoietic " views,  "cognitive immune" views,  the " danger model " or "danger theory" ,  and the "discontinuity" theory.
This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins which are typically larger than Da. In some cases, the drug itself is not immunogenic, but may be co-administered with an immunogenic compound, as is sometimes the case for Taxol.
Computational methods have been developed to predict the immunogenicity of peptides and proteins, which are particularly useful in designing therapeutic antibodies, assessing likely virulence of mutations in viral coat particles, and validation of proposed peptide-based drug treatments. Early techniques relied mainly on the observation that hydrophilic amino acids are overrepresented in epitope regions than hydrophobic amino acids;  however, more recent developments rely on machine learning techniques using databases of existing known epitopes, usually on well-studied virus proteins, as a training set.
The success of any pathogen depends on its ability to elude host immune responses. Therefore, pathogens evolved several methods that allow them to successfully infect a host, while evading detection or destruction by the immune system. These proteins are often used to shut down host defenses.
An evasion strategy used by several pathogens to avoid the innate immune system is to hide within the cells of their host also called intracellular pathogenesis. Here, a pathogen spends most of its life-cycle inside host cells, where it is shielded from direct contact with immune cells, antibodies and complement. Some examples of intracellular pathogens include viruses, the food poisoning bacterium Salmonella and the eukaryotic parasites that cause malaria Plasmodium falciparum and leishmaniasis Leishmania spp.
Other bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis , live inside a protective capsule that prevents lysis by complement. Such biofilms are present in many successful infections, e. The mechanisms used to evade the adaptive immune system are more complicated. This is called antigenic variation. An example is HIV, which mutates rapidly, so the proteins on its viral envelope that are essential for entry into its host target cell are constantly changing.
These frequent changes in antigens may explain the failures of vaccines directed at this virus. In HIV, the envelope that covers the virion is formed from the outermost membrane of the host cell; such "self-cloaked" viruses make it difficult for the immune system to identify them as "non-self" structures. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 13 August A biological system that protects an organism against disease. Cataphylaxis Clonal selection Hapten Human physiology Immune network theory Immune system receptors ImmunoGrid , a project to model the mammalian, and specifically human, immune system using Grid technologies Immunoproteomics Immunostimulator Original antigenic sin Plant disease resistance Polyclonal response Tumor antigens Vaccine-naive Mucosal immunology.
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Archived from the original PDF on 16 July After all, it also needs energy to function. This also means that being obese and prediabetic compromises our immune system.
By improving insulin resistance improves the immune system. Enzymes are proteins that facilitate chemical reactions in living organisms. They are required for every single chemical action that takes place in your body.
All of your tissues, muscles, bones, organs and cells are run by enzymes. Your digestive system, immune system, bloodstream, liver, kidneys, spleen and pancreas, as well as your ability to see, think, feel and breathe, all depend on enzymes.
Systemic enzymes , sometimes called metabolic or proteolytic enzymes , are produced by the pancreas to repair the body In fact, they are a necessary component of all other functions in the body besides digestion, and your body is unable to produce enough of them because we eat cooked foods.
Animal studies have shown that an increase in fat intake can decrease the number of natural killer NK cells found in the blood and spleen. NK cells are an integral part of the natural immune response to virus infections and certain types of cancer. Researchers at Oxford University now report that fish oil significantly decreases NK cell activity in healthy human subjects.
Their clinical trial involved 48 men and women aged 55 to 75 years. The participants were randomized to receive one of six supplements for 12 weeks. The supplements were all provided in the form of capsules, three of which were to be taken with each meal.
All the participants had blood samples taken four weeks before start of supplementation, immediately before start of supplementation, and then every four weeks during the trial as well as after a four-week washout period.
The researchers found no changes in killer cell activity except in the group taking fish oil. Here they observed an average decline of 20 per cent after 8 weeks and 48 per cent after 12 weeks.
The decline was completely reversed after the washout period. The researchers conclude that an excessive EPA intake could have adverse effects for people at risk of viral infections and some cancers. The British researchers' speculation about fish oils perhaps affecting the effectiveness of NK cells in killing cancer cells is at odds with the results of many other studies.
There are at least a dozen studies that show a clear protective effect of fish or fish oil against breast, colon, and prostate cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. Its been around for thousands of years. Every traditional healing culture in the world has a ginseng or ginseng-type plant in its medicine chest. Daily ginseng was a necessary matter of life throughout all of Chinas long history.
At the turn of the 20th century, virtually every Chinese person used ginseng to some extent for their well being, especially as a wellness tonic. Ginseng was also highly esteemed by every Native American culture. At the Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Jilin Province where ginseng is grown , researchers in the pharmacology department evaluated the effects of ginseng on immune responses. The immune responses of mice were tested with different dosages of extracts obtained either from the leaf or the root of ginseng.
Significant changes in the response of the reticuloendothelial RES system were found, especially with moderate doses of the root extracts. Larger doses did not improve the response.
RES cells are the immune system components that devour foreign organisms without leaving their original sites in the liver, spleen and other tissues of the body. Ginseng - the most extensively studied herb on earth!
Lin Yutang, a Chinese research scientist who spent a lifetime learning about ginseng, summed up his work by saying that "The magic tonic and building qualities of ginseng are the most enduring, the most energy-giving, restorative qualities known to mankind, yet it is distinguished by the slowness and gentleness of its action".
More modern research has been done on ginseng than all other herbs combined. At the turn of the 21st century ginseng is being intensively studied by athletic performance experts as well as medical science.
According to the British Journal of Biomedical Science, allicin is considered to be the most potent antibacterial agent in crushed garlic extracts. Garlic has been used since the days of the Egyptians to treat wounds, infections, tumors, and intestinal parasites.
Several animal studies published between and indicate that allicin may reduce atherosclerosis and fat deposition, normalize the lipoprotein balance, decrease blood pressure, have anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory activities, and function as an antioxidant.
Garlic has been widely reported to protect against cardiovascular disease by reducing serum cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure and by inhibiting platelet aggregation.
Garlic detoxifies chemical carcinogens and prevent carcinogenesis and can also directly inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Allicin, the heart of garlic, stimulates immunity, including macrophage activity, natural killer and killer cells, and LAK cells, and to increase the production of IL-2, TNF, and interferon-gamma.
If we are to get these poisons out of our bodies we must fast. By fasting we give our bodies a physiological rest. This rest builds Vital Force. The more Vital Force we have, the more toxins are going to be eliminated from the body to help keep it clean, pure and healthy.
A report from the Agronomic Institute, Faculty of Zootechnics, Romania, showed the immune-strengthening effects of bee pollen. Andrei, "An increase has been recorded in the level of blood lymphocytes, gamma globulins, and proteins in those subjects given pollen in comparison with control groups. The most significant difference occurred in lymphocytes. These results thus signify a strengthening in the resistance of the organic system. They are responsible for ridding the body of injurious and harmful substances, including infected or diseased cells, mutant and cancerous cells, viruses, metabolic trash, and so on.
Gamma globulin is a protein formed in the blood, and our ability to resist infection is closely related to this protein's activity. As well as its blood purifying properties, echinacea is an effective antibacterial, antiviral and immune system stimulant or infection fighter.
For more than years it has proven useful in most diseases due to impurities of the blood. It is excellent for treating the causes of fever, infection, colds and flu and is specific for all glandular infections. Echinacea pronounced eek-in-asia is a plant which was first used by Native American Indians to cure snake bites, colds, flu and other fever-related illnesses.
Today echinacea is commercially cultivated and is the most popular herb in the world. In Europe, echinacea is used in many cases instead of antibiotics. Golden Seal is claimed by many to be the world's oldest medicinal plant.
It is said to promote white blood cell activity, which is an important part of your body's natural defense system. Oxygen depletion weakens our immune system, which leads to viral infections, damaged cells, growths, inflamed joins, serious heart and circulatory problems, toxic buildup in blood and premature aging.
Low oxygen allows damaged cells to multiply and form growths in our bodies because our cells are oxygen deficient. If the cells in our bodies are rich in oxygen, mutated cells are less able to reproduce. Oxygen shortage in the human body has been linked to every major illness category including heart conditions, cancer, digestion and elimination problems, respiratory disease, inflamed, swollen and aching joints, sinus problems, yeast infections and even sexual dysfunction.
Fresh live foods and rain water contain oxygen. Cooked foods and stagnant water has much less oxygen. Oxygen is our primary source of energy. It displaces harmful free radicals, neutralizes environmental toxins and destroys anaerobic the inability to live in oxygen rich environments infectious bacteria, parasites, microbes and viruses. The psychological stressors of surgery deal a blow to the immune system, but this is hardly discussed in the medical community," says Prof.
Ben-Eliyahu's studies is that stress hormones such as adrenaline, which are released before and during surgery, "underlie much of the devastating effects of surgery on immune competence," says Prof. Until now, doctors assumed that the immune system was weakened due to tissue damage and the body's responses to it.
A weak immune system is one of the major factors that promotes cancer metastases after an operation, explains Prof. It provides a good beginning for enlightenment beyond the confines of modern medicine.
Its data is both informative and practical. Appleton has taken extremely complex subject matter and made it simple enough for any to understand.
I have studied extensively for over 20 years ALL of the material covered by this book. There are no lies within its covers. Consequences today from Pasteur's devious behavior and efforts in the previous century make Adolf Hitler looks like a Cub Scout by comparison! Officials from the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control have reported that the overuse of antibiotics in medicine has created an epidemic of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
For many of us it comes as as surprise to learn that bacteria are highly intelligent and adaptable. We have been taught from birth that they are pretty dumb and that, through the use of antibiotics, we are winning a war against them, a war that will end all disease. In fact the opposite is true. Bacteria show behavior that indicate intelligence and they are acting together throughout the world to counter the antibiotics we have invented to kill them off.
Bacteria, it turns out, are inextricably intertwined with the formation of the human species and the health of the Earth. One to two pounds of our body weight are bacteria and over eons we have developed a crucial and important symbiosis with them.
Alternative Advantages to the Dangers of Conventional Vaccinations. The body's defense department. Factores de transferencias y su sistema inmunologico Optimice su salud y Aumentar el Glutatión con Immunocal Oportunidad de Negocios en la Industra de Salud y Bienestar. UT Healing of Humans, Animals. Urine Therapy is Nature's own Perfect Medicine. Shaken Baby Syndrome or Vaccinosis Encephalitis? Patricia Jordan's Articles on Danger of Vaccines. Kibble, Raw or Home-cooked Food?
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