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The results showed insulin sensitivity improved in assocication with decreases inboth visceral VAT and subcutaneous adiposity SAT as well as improvement in CRF, regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Archived from the original on October 12, Archived from the original on 24 July In addition, liraglutide has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. Reaching 40 was like a stopwatch to my metabolism. Several books have mentioned the Committee's efforts, e. Does one hand wash the other?
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The authors concluded that further research is needed into electrode positioning, bioimpedance spectroscopy and Cole analysis in order to realize the full potential of this technology. These investigators reviewed available information on the short- and long-term effects of intervention treatment on body fat composition of overweight and obese children and adolescents and, to obtain a further understanding on how different body composition techniques detect longitudinal changes.
A total of 13 papers were included; 7 included a multi-disciplinary intervention component, 5 applied a combined dietary and physical activity intervention and 1 a physical activity intervention. Body composition techniques used included anthropometric indices, BIA, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Percentage of fat mass change was calculated in when possible. Findings suggested, no changes were observed in fat free mass after 16 weeks of nutritional intervention and the lowest decrease on fat mass percentage was obtained.
However, the highest fat mass percentage with parallel increase in fat free mass, both assessed by DXA was observed in a multi-component intervention applied for 20 weeks. The authors concluded that more studies are needed to determine the best field body composition method to monitor changes during overweight treatment in children and adolescents. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion, extracted data and rated methodological quality of the included studies.
These investigators performed a best evidence synthesis to synthesize the results, thereby excluding studies of poor quality. They included 50 published studies. Mean differences between BIA and reference methods gold standard [criterion validity] and convergent measures of body composition [convergent validity] were considerable and ranged from negative to positive values, resulting in conflicting evidence for criterion validity.
These investigators found strong evidence for a good reliability, i. However, test-retest mean differences ranged from 7. However, they stated that validity and measurement error were not satisfactory. Goldberg et al stated that the sensory and gastro-intestinal changes that occur with aging affect older adults' food and liquid intake.
Any decreased liquid intake increases the risk for dehydration. This increased dehydration risk is compounded in older adults with dysphagia.
The availability of a non-invasive and easily administered way to document hydration levels in older adults is critical, particularly for adults in residential care. This pilot study investigated the contribution of BIA to measure hydration in 19 older women in residential care: The authors concluded that if results are confirmed through continued investigation, such findings may suggest that long-term care facilities are unique environments in which all older residents can be considered at-risk for dehydration and support the use of BIA as a non-invasive tool to assess and monitor their hydration status.
Buffa et al defined the effectiveness of bioelectrical impedance vector analysis BIVA for assessing 2-compartment body composition. Selection criteria included studies comparing the results of BIVA with those of other techniques, and studies analyzing bioelectrical vectors of obese, athletic, cachectic and lean individuals. A total of 30 articles met the inclusion criteria. The ability of classic BIVA for assessing 2-compartment body composition has been mainly evaluated by means of indirect techniques, such as anthropometry and BIA.
Classic BIVA showed a high agreement with body mass index, which can be interpreted in relation to the greater body mass of obese and athletic individuals, whereas the comparison with BIA showed less consistent results, especially in diseased individuals. The authors concluded that specific BIVA is a promising alternative to classic BIVA for assessing 2-compartment body composition, with potential application in nutritional, sport and geriatric medicine.
Haverkort et al noted that BIA is a commonly used method for the evaluation of body composition. However, BIA estimations are subject to uncertainties. These researchers explored the variability of empirical prediction equations used in BIA estimations and evaluated the validity of BIA estimations in adult surgical and oncological patients.
Studies developing new empirical prediction equations and studies evaluating the validity of BIA estimations compared with a reference method were included. Only studies using BIA devices measuring the entire body were included. Studies that included patients with altered body composition or a disturbed fluid balance and studies written in languages other than English were excluded. To illustrate variability between equations, fixed normal reference values of resistance values were entered into the existing empirical prediction equations of the included studies and the results were plotted in figures.
Estimates of the FM demonstrated large variability range relative difference The authors concluded that application of equations validated in healthy subjects to predict body composition performs less well in oncologic and surgical patients. They suggested that BIA estimations, irrespective of the device, can only be useful when performed longitudinally and under the same standard conditions.
Gibson et al stated that VLEDs and ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets KLCDs are 2 dietary strategies that have been associated with a suppression of appetite.
However, the results of clinical trials investigating the effect of ketogenic diets on appetite are inconsistent. To evaluate quantitatively the effect of ketogenic diets on subjective appetite ratings, these researchers conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of studies that assessed appetite with visual analog scales VAS before in energy balance and during while in ketosis adherence to VLED or KLCD.
Although these absolute changes in appetite were small, they occurred within the context of energy restriction, which is known to increase appetite in obese people. Thus, the clinical benefit of a ketogenic diet is in preventing an increase in appetite, despite weight loss, although individuals may indeed feel slightly less hungry or more full or satisfied.
Ketosis appears to provide a plausible explanation for this suppression of appetite. The authors concluded that future studies should investigate the minimum level of ketosis required to achieve appetite suppression during ketogenic weight loss diets, as this could enable inclusion of a greater variety of healthy carbohydrate-containing foods into the diet.
Bueno and colleagues examined the effect of replacing dietary long-chain triacylglycerols LCTs with medium-chain triacylglycerols MCTs on body composition in adults. These researchers conducted a meta-analysis of RCTs, to examine if individuals assigned to replace at least 5 g of dietary LCTs with MCTs for a minimum of 4 weeks show positive modifications on body composition.
Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Weighted mean differences WMDs were calculated for net changes in the outcomes.
These investigators assessed heterogeneity by the Cochran Q test and I 2 statistic and publication bias with the Egger's test. Pre-specified sensitivity analyses were performed.
A total of 11 trials were included, from which 5 presented low risk of bias. The overall quality of the evidence was low-to-moderate. Trials with a cross-over design were responsible for the heterogeneity. The authors concluded that despite statistically significant results, the recommendation to replace dietary LCTs with MCTs must be cautiously taken, because the available evidence is not of the highest quality.
Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I 2 statistic.
No differences were seen in blood lipid levels. Many trials lacked sufficient information for a complete quality assessment, and commercial bias was detected. Although heterogeneity was absent, study designs varied with regard to duration, dose, and control of energy intake. The authors concluded that replacement of LCTs with MCTs in the diet could potentially induce modest reductions in body weight and composition without adversely affecting lipid profiles.
However, they stated that further research is needed by independent research groups using large, well-designed studies to confirm the effectiveness of MCT and to determine the dosage needed for the management of a healthy body weight and composition. They performed a search of English-language articles in the PubMed and Embase databases through April 30, Differences in weight loss between FTO genotypes across studies were pooled with the use of fixed-effect models.
A meta-analysis of 10 studies comprising 6, participants that reported the results of additive genetic models showed that individuals with the FTO TA genotype and AA genotype those with the obesity-predisposing A allele had 0. A meta-analysis of 14 studies comprising 7, participants that reported the results of dominant genetic models indicated a 0. In addition, differences in weight loss between the AA genotype and TT genotype were significant in studies with a diet intervention only, adjustment for baseline BMI or body weight, and several other subgroups.
However, the relatively small number of studies limited these stratified analyses, and there was no statistically significant difference between subgroups. Hypoxic conditioning has been previously used by healthy and athletic populations to enhance their physical capacity and improve performance in the lead up to competition. Recently, HC has also been applied acutely single exposure and chronically repeated exposure over several weeks to over-weight and obese populations with the intention of managing and potentially increasing cardio-metabolic health and weight loss.
At present, it is unclear what the cardio-metabolic health and weight loss responses of obese populations are in response to passive and active HC. Exploration of potential benefits of exposure to both passive and active HC may provide pivotal findings for improving health and well-being in these individuals. These researchers carried out a systematic literature search for articles published between and Studies investigating the effects of normobaric HC as a novel therapeutic approach to elicit improvements in the cardio-metabolic health and weight loss of obese populations were included.
Inconclusive findings, however, exist in determining the impact of acute and chronic HC on markers such as triglycerides, cholesterol levels, and fitness capacity.
The authors concluded that normobaric HC demonstrated observable positive findings in relation to insulin and energy expenditure passive , and body weight and BP active , which may improve the cardio-metabolic health and body weight management of obese populations.
However, they stated that further evidence on responses of circulating biomarkers to both passive and active HC in humans is needed. The following indicates maximum ideal weight in shoes with one-inch heels based on body frame and height:. Clinical Policy Bulletin Notes.
Links to various non-Aetna sites are provided for your convenience only. Weight Reduction Medications and Programs. Aetna considers the following medically necessary treatment of obesity when criteria are met: Weight reduction medications, and. Dexamethasone suppression test and hour urinary free cortisol measures if symptoms suggest Cushing's syndrome. Rice diet or other special diet supplements e. American Obesity Association, C. Guidance for treatment of adult obesity. Accessed March 16, Long-term pharmacotherapy in the management of obesity.
Gain and loss in weight. Department of Agriculture and U. Department of Health and Human Services. Nutrition and your health: Dietary guidelines for Americans.
Home and Garden Bulletin. Government Printing Office; The effect of pharmacologic agents. Am J Clin Nutr. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. Drug Information for the Health Care Professional.
United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Introductory Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Drugs used in obesity. Therapy for obesity--today and tomorrow. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab.
Use and abuse of appetite-suppressant drugs in the treatment of obesity. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. The acute 1-week effects of the Zone diet on body composition, blood lipid levels, and performance in recreational endurance athletes.
J Strength Cond Res. Haller C, Schwartz JB. When these enzymes enter the bloodstream at higher than normal amounts, they are said to be elevated. Because the liver's functions effect every part of the body, inflammation in this organ may cause stomachache, nausea and vomiting.
Your doctor can determine the cause of liver distress with the help of blood tests and a comprehensive health history.
Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and stomach pain could be the flu, but if your liver enzymes are elevated it could be a case of hepatitis A. The hepatitis A virus also typically causes jaundice. It is spread by fecal-oral contamination, a result of poor bathroom hygiene or food contamination.
The virus is shed in the stool of infected persons. Hepatitis A is a self-limiting disorder; you may need only rest and plenty of fluids to get over it. Infection with the hepatitis B or C viruses may cause chronic illness and damage to the liver that occurs over time. The Illinois Department of Public Health reports that hepatitis C is spread by blood, putting health care workers, IV drug users and those who received blood transfusions prior to at highest risk.
Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccines. A healthy liver aids the digestion of fats and proteins, regulates sex hormones, breaks down toxins in the bloodstream and removes excess red blood cells.