Basic Principles of Nutrition in Patients With Cancer
This book written in simple, non-technical style is highly recommended for both the students of food and nutrition as well as the general public. Elements suggesting a cause and effect relationship can be formulated, but without seeking absolute proof, if plausibility of the effectiveness of the programme appears sufficient to those in charge. Artificial feeding is expensive, requires clean water, the ability of the mother or caregiver to read and comply with mixing instructions and a minimum standard of overall household hygiene. Without more context, these characteristics are not acceptable measures by which to determine malnutrition. Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. The Code is a set of recommendations to regulate the marketing of breast-milk substitutes, feeding bottles and teats.
Serum retinol concentrations for determining the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations. Xerophthalmia and night blindness for the assessment of clinical vitamin A deficiency in individuals and populations.
Vitamin A deficiency, list of publications. Trends and mortality effects of vitamin A deficiency in children in low-income and middle-income countries between and This indicator allows an assessment of iodine deficiency at the population level. Iodine is an essential trace element that is present on the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodotyronine. It occurs most frequently in areas where there is little iodine in the diet—typically remote inland areas where no marine foods are eaten.
Although goitre assessment by palpation or ultrasound may be useful for assessing thyroid function, results are difficult to interpret once salt iodization programmes have started.
The median urinary iodine concentration is considered the main indicator of iodine status for all age groups, because its measurement is relatively non-invasive, cost-efficient and easy to perform. Since the majority of iodine absorbed by the body is excreted in the urine, it is considered a sensitive marker of current iodine intake and can reflect recent changes in iodine status. Median urinary iodine concentrations have been most commonly measured in school children aged 6—12 years due to their easy access.
During the neonatal period, childhood and adolescence, iodine deficiency disorders can lead to hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in stillbirth, spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mental retardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia.
Of even greater significance is the less visible, yet pervasive, mental impairment that reduces intellectual capacity at home, in school and at work. Cut-off values for public health significance in different target groups. Concentration cut-off values for public health significance. May pose a slight risk of more than adequate iodine intake in these populations. Risk of adverse health consequences iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroid disease.
Urinary iodine concentrations for determining iodine status deficiency in populations. Goitre as a determinant of the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders in populations. Iodine deficiency, list of publications. Global iodine status in and trends over the past decade. In NLIS, it is used as a proxy for access to health services and maternal care. The indicator gives the percentage of live births attended by skilled health personnel in a given period.
A skilled birth attendant is an accredited health professional—such as a midwife, doctor or nurse—who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal uncomplicated pregnancies, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period, and in the identification, management and referral of women and newborns for complications.
In developed countries and in many urban areas in developing countries, skilled care at delivery is usually provided in health facilities. Births do, however, take place in various other appropriate places, from home to tertiary referral centres, depending on availability and need.
WHO does not recommend a particular setting for giving birth. Home delivery may be appropriate for normal births, provided that the person attending the delivery is suitably trained and equipped and that referral to a higher level of care is an option, however this may lead to an overestimation of births attended by skilled personal as infants delivered outside of a health facility may not have their birth method recorded. All women should have access to skilled care during pregnancy and at delivery to ensure the detection and management of complications.
One woman dies needlessly of pregnancy-related causes every minute, representing more than half a million mothers lost each year, a figure that has improved little over the past few decades. Another 8 million or more suffer life-long health consequences from the complications of pregnancy. The lack of progress in reducing maternal mortality in many countries often reflects the low value placed on the lives of women and their limited role in setting public priorities.
The lives of many women in developing countries could be saved by reproductive health interventions that people in rich countries take for granted, such as the presence of skilled health personnel at delivery. Improved sanitation facilit ies and drinking-water sources. What do these indicators tell us? These indicators are the percentage of population with access to an improved drinking-water source and improved sanitation facilities.
How are they defined? Improved drinking-water sources are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to provide safe water. Improved water sources include household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collection. Unimproved water sources are unprotected wells, unprotected springs, vendor-provided water, bottled water unless water for other uses is available from an improved source and tanker truck-provided water.
Improved sanitation facilities are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to be sanitary. Improved sanitation includes connection to a public sewers, connection to septic systems, pour-flush latrines, simple pit latrines and ventilated improved pit latrines. Service or bucket latrines from which excreta are removed manually , public latrines and open latrines are not considered to be improved sanitation.
Access to safe drinking-water and improved sanitation are fundamental needs and human rights vital for the dignity and health of all people. The health and economic benefits of a safe water supply to households and individuals especially children are well documented.
Both indicators are used to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. World Health Statistics, Children aged 1 y ear immunized against measles.
Estimates of vaccination coverage of children aged 1 year are used to monitor vaccination services, to guide disease eradication and elimination programmes and as indicators of health system performance.
Measles vaccination coverage is defined as the percentage of 1-year-olds who have received at least one dose of measles-containing vaccine in a given year. In countries that recommend that the first dose be given to children over 12 months of age, the indicator is calculated as the proportion of children under 24 months of age receiving one dose of measles-containing vaccine. Measles is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood deaths, and unvaccinated populations are at risk for the disease.
Measles is a significant infectious disease because it is so contagious that the number of people who would suffer complications after an outbreak among nonimmune people would quickly overwhelm available hospital resources.
When vaccination rates fall, the number of nonimmune persons in the community rises, and the risk for an outbreak of measles consequently rises. Millennium Development Goals indicators database. This indicator reflects the percentage of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years.
It provides information about the quality and coverage of perinatal medical services. Daily iron and folic acid supplementation is currently recommended by WHO as part of antenatal care to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and iron deficiency.
However, despite its proven efficacy and wide inclusion in antenatal care programmes, its use has been limited in programme settings, possibly due to a lack of compliance, concerns about the safety of the intervention among women with an adequate iron intake, and variable availability of the supplements at community level.
This indicator is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The indicator is defined as the proportion of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years. Data can be reported on any iron-containing supplement including iron and folic acid tablets IFA , multiple micronutrient tablets or powders, or iron-only tablets which will vary by country policy.
Improving the intake of iron and folic acid by women of reproductive age could improve pregnancy outcomes and enhance maternal and infant health. Iron and folic acid supplementation improve iron and folate status of women before and during pregnancy, in communities where food-based strategies are not yet fully implemented or effective.
Folic acid supplementation with or without iron provided before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy is also recommended for decreasing the risk of neural tube defects. Anaemia during pregnancy places women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality and also increases the risks for perinatal mortality, premature birth and low birth weight.
Infants born to anaemic mothers have less than one half the normal iron reserves. Morbidity from infectious diseases is increased in iron-deficient populations, because of the adverse effect of iron deficiency on the immune system.
Iron deficiency is also associated with reduced work capacity and with reduced neurocognitive development. Demographic and Health Surveys. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy.
This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution. The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms. Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1.
As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age. Children with diarrhoea receiving zinc. This indicator reflects the prevalence of children who were given zinc as part of treatment for acute diarrhoea.
Unfortunately, there are no readily available data on this indicator, which is maintained in the NLIS to encourage countries to collect and compile data on these aspects in order to assess their national capacity.
Measures to prevent childhood diarrhoeal episodes include promoting zinc intake. Diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 2 million deaths a year among children under 5, making them the second most-common cause of child death worldwide. The greater the prevalence of zinc supplementation during diarrhoea treatment, the better the outcome of treatment for diarrhoea. WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, improved hygiene, better access to cleaner sources of drinking-water and sanitation facilities and vaccination against rotavirus in the clinical management of acute diarrhoea and also the use of zinc, which is safe and effective.
Specifically, zinc supplements given during an episode of acute diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of the episode, and giving zinc supplements for days lowers the incidence of diarrhoea in the following months. Currently no data are available. The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity. Report of a workshop to review the results of three large studies. Geneva , World Health Organization, Children aged months receiving v itamin A supplements.
These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one and two doses of vitamin A supplements, respectively. The indicators are defined as the proportion of children aged months who received one or two high doses of vitamin A supplements within 1 year. Current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every months for all children between the ages of 6 and 59 months living in affected areas.
The recommended doses are IU for month-old children and IU for those aged months. Programmes to control vitamin A deficiency enhance children's chances of survival, reduce the severity of childhood illnesses, ease the strain on health systems and hospitals and contribute to the well-being of children, their families and communities. The World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year The critical role of vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of efforts to improve child survival and therefore of the achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal, a two-thirds reduction in mortality of children under 5 by the year As there is strong evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces child mortality, measuring the proportion of children who have received vitamin A within the past 6 months can be used to monitor coverage with interventions for achieving the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.
Supplementation with vitamin A is a safe, cost-effective, efficient means for eliminating its deficiency and improving child survival. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one or two doses of vitamin A supplements.
The indicator reflects the proportion of babies born in facilities that have been designated as Baby-friendly. Proportion of births in Baby-friendly facilities is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. This indicator is defined as the proportion of babies born in facilities designated as Baby-friendly in a calendar year.
To be counted as currently Baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the last five years or been reassessed within that timeframe. Facilities may be designed as Baby-friendly if they meet the minimum Global Criteria, which includes adherence to the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. The Ten steps include having a breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to staff, having staff trained on policy implementation, informing pregnant women on the benefits and management of breastfeeding, promoting early initiation of breastfeeding, among others.
The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes restricts the distribution of free infant formula and promotional materials from infant formula companies.
The more of the Steps that the mother experiences, the better her success with breastfeeding. Improved breastfeeding practices worldwide could save the lives of over children every year. National implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative.
Implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Mothers of children months receiving counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Optimal practices include early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by appropriate complementary with continued breastfeeding for 2 years or beyond.
Even though it is a natural act, breastfeeding is also a learned behaviour. Virtually all mothers can breastfeed provided they have accurate information, and support within their families and communities and from the health care system.
This indicator has been established to measure the proportion of mothers receiving breastfeeding counselling, support or messages. The proportion of mothers of children months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the previous 12 months is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
The indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the last year.
Counseling and informational support on optimal breastfeeding practices for mothers has been demonstrated to improve initiation and duration of breastfeeding, which in has many health benefits for both the mother and infant. Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and may also have longer-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence.
Breastfeeding has also been associated with higher intelligence quotient IQ in children. Salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for eliminating iodine-deficiency disorders as a public health problem, and the aim is to achieve universal salt iodization.
While other foodstuffs can be iodized, salt has the advantage of being widely consumed and inexpensive. Salt has been iodized routinely in some industrialized countries since the s. This indicator is a measure of whether a fortification programme is reaching the target population adequately. The indicator is a measure of the percentage of households consuming iodized salt, defined as salt containing parts per million of iodine.
Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with thyroid problems e. Consumption of iodized salt increased in the developing world during the past decade: This means that about 84 million newborns are now being protected from learning disabilities due to iodine-deficiency disorders. Monitoring the situation of women and children. Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by Micronutrient deficiencies, iodine deficiency disorders. Population with less than the minimum dietary energy consumption.
This indicator is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements, and who therefore are undernourished or food-deprived. The estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO of the prevalence of undernourishment are essentially measures of food deprivation based on calculations of three parameters for each country: The average amount of food available for human consumption is derived from national 'food balance sheets' compiled by FAO each year, which show how much of each food commodity a country produces, imports and withdraws from stocks for other, non-food purposes.
FAO then divides the energy equivalent of all the food available for human consumption by the total population, to derive average daily energy consumption. Data from household surveys are used to derive a coefficient of variation to account for the degree of inequality in access to food. Similarly, because a large adult needs almost twice as much dietary energy as a 3-year-old child, the minimum energy requirement per person in each country is based on age, gender and body sizes in that country.
The average energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body weight, body composition and levels of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health.
It includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of the mother and child. The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group.
FAO reports the proportion of the population whose daily food intake falls below that minimum energy requirement as 'undernourished'.
Trends in undernourishment are due mainly to: The indicator is a measure of an important aspect of food insecurity in a population. Sustainable development requires a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including solutions to hunger and malnutrition.
Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction, as undernourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity. Malnutrition can be the outcome of a range of circumstances. In order for poverty reduction strategies to be effective, they must address food access, availability and safety. Rome, October The State of Food Insecurity in the World Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition.
FAO methodology to estimate the prevalence of undernourishment. FAO, Rome, 9 October This indicator gives the prevalence of people living in extreme poverty, as measured by their daily income, and allows comparisons and aggregation of data on the progress of countries in reducing extreme poverty and allows monitoring of global trends.
As this poverty line has fixed purchasing power across countries or areas, it is often called the 'absolute poverty line'. Measures of poverty in countries are generally based on national poverty lines.
Comparisons of poverty measures within countries are also difficult, especially for urban-rural differences. As the cost of living is typically higher in urban than in rural areas, the urban monetary poverty line should be higher than that for rural areas. The difference between the two in practice, however, may not properly reflect the difference in cost of living. Mal nutrition is the single one of the most important risk factor for disease.
When poverty is added, it results in a downward spiral that may end in death. Turning the tide of mal nutrition. Responding to the challenge of the 21st century. Washington DC, World Bank. Millennium Development Goals indicators series metadata. Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. New York , United Nations, Infant and young child feeding. The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding.
This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality.
Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed. This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water. The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine.
Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers. An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants.
Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness. Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources.
It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.
When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide. Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. As per revised recommendation by TEAM in June , dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups: Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet.
This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. Proportion of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from: Dietary diversity is present when the diet contained four or more of the following food groups: Join us in celebrating World Breastfeeding Week !
Want to learn how SUN Countries are progressing towards no malnutrition? News Blogs In Practice. August 30, 0. August 28, 0. April 11, 0. April 10, 0. February 22, 0. February 6, 0. Humanitarian field Multi-stakeholder planning. Join a SUN Network! No s1, December Please note that some children can suffer from more than one form of malnutrition — such as stunting and overweight or stunting and wasting. There are currently no joint global or regional estimates for these combined conditions, but UNICEF has a country-level dataset with country level estimates, where re-analysis was possible.
Prevalence of stunting, wasting and overweight among children under 5 is estimated by comparing actual measurements to an international standard reference population. The new standards are the result of an intensive study project involving more than 8, children from Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the United States.
Overcoming the technical and biological drawbacks of the old reference population, the new standards confirm that children born anywhere in the world and given the optimum start in life have the potential to reach the same range of height and weight. The new standards should be used in future assessments of child nutritional status. It should be noted that because of the differences between the old reference population and the new standards, prevalence estimates of child anthropometry indicators based on these two references are not readily comparable.
It is essential that all estimates are based on the same reference population preferably the new standards when conducting trend analyses. Before conducting trend analyses of child nutritional status, it is important to ensure that estimates from various data sources are comparable over time.
For example, household surveys in some countries in the early s only collected child anthropometry information among children up to 47 months of age — or even up to only 35 months of age. Prevalence estimates based on such data only referred to children under 4 or under 3 years of age and are not comparable to prevalence estimates based on data collected from children up to 59 months of age.
Some age adjustment needs to be applied to make these estimates based on non-standard age groups comparable to those based on the standard age range. For more information about age adjustment, please click here to read a technical note.
In addition, prevalence estimates need to be calculated according to the same reference population. For more information about the difference between the two references and its implications, please click here to read a series of questions and answers.
When data collection begins in one calendar year and continues into the next, the survey year assigned is the one in which most of the fieldwork took place. For example, if a survey was conducted between 1 September and 28 February , the year would be assigned, since the majority of data collection took place in that year i. This method has been used since the edition prior to that, the latter year was used by default — e.
As of the edition, the country-level dataset used to generate the global and regional joint malnutrition estimates is based only on final survey results.
Preliminary survey results are no longer included in the dataset since the data are sometimes retracted or change significantly when the final version is released. Country-level progress in reducing undernutrition prevalence is evaluated by calculating the average annual rate of reduction AARR and comparing this to the AARR needed in order to achieve targets.
Estimation of regional and global trends is based on a multilevel modelling method see de Onis et al. For the most recent trend analysis, a total of data points from countries over the period to were included in the model. This set of trend data points was jointly reviewed by UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank Group in January to ensure that it is nationally representative of under-five children, processed using standard algorithms and comparable vertically and horizontally.
Global and regional trend modelling and graphing were carried out using SAS the country-level data set and analysis code are available on request. Each circle represents a prevalence estimate from a country for one survey. The size of the circle is proportional to the under-five population in that country for the average of all survey years. The solid line indicates the regional trend as modelled on all the available data points in the region. Explanation as to why trends are shown for stunting and overweight but only most current estimate for wasting and severe wasting: Prevalence estimates for stunting and overweight are relatively stable over the course of a calendar year.
It is therefore possible to track global and regional changes in these two conditions over time. Wasting and severe wasting are acute conditions that can change frequently and rapidly over the course of a calendar year.
This makes it difficult to generate reliable trends over time with the input data available, and as such, this report provides only the most recent global and regional estimates for the JME edition.
These data are collected infrequently every 3 to 5 years in most countries and measure malnutrition at one point in time e. Footnotes on population coverage As started in the edition, a separate exercise was conducted to assess population coverage. This was important in order to alert the reader, via footnotes, to instances where the data should be interpreted with caution due to low population coverage defined as less than 50 per cent. A conservative method was applied looking at available data within mutually exclusive five-year periods around the projected years.