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What Is Choline? Benefits, Sources & Signs of Choline Deficiency
Retrieved 17 March I don't know what you feed your beloved pet, but I venture to say that his diet is most likely the cause of his issues. I also mix in boiled vegtables that I mash together. I was at the end of my rope and one night I googled "canine yeast infections". A fracture that has displacement from its normal alignment Closed fracture:

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Musculoskeletal System – Skeletal System: TEAS

The most common signs and symptoms of stomach ulcers include: But some part of this process can become disturbed, and the lining of the GI tract can become exposed, forming small sores ulcers.

Research shows that around 35 percent of patients with ulcers experience other complications besides immediate pain, including the chance for severe perforation of the lining of the GI tract and internal bleeding. A high percentage of ulcers up to 90 percent of all cases can be resolved without the need for surgery or serious medication use.

Peptic ulcers can also play a part in other diseases, particularly diseases related to the liver and kidneys. A stomach ulcer can lead to bleeding in liver cirrhosis and can be a sign of chronic kidney disease. If you suspect you have a stomach ulcer, see your doctor to first rule out other causes of your pain. NSAIDs affect the gastrointestinal system by altering how digestive enzymes and stomach acids are produced.

NSAIDs not only decrease these enzymes, but at the same time lower production of another chemical that protects the stomach lining from stomach acid. Talk to your doctor about other options for controlling pain. What about antacids and acid-reducing medications — wondering if taking these solves ulcers? Your doctor might prescribe other medications to reduce stomach acid and coat and protect your ulcer such as PPIs , but ultimately you want to manage your symptoms naturally long term instead of relying on medications.

People with anxiety and high amounts of stress have been observed to have higher than normal rates of ulcers and more frequent infections caused by H. To help better manage stress, take advantage of natural stress relievers like regularly exercising, meditating or practicing healing prayer , spending time outdoors, getting good sleep, and using relaxing essential oils for anxiety. A highly inflammatory lifestyle weakens the immune system and makes the digestive system more susceptible to an infection caused by H.

Research shows that today about 30 percent to 40 percent of people in the U. Once damaged, stomach acid is able to get through to the sensitive lining, causing burning and irritation. Some of these can also make treatment of ulcers more difficult. For example, research facts show that smoking cigarettes makes ulcers harder to heal and possibly more painful. An improper diet that includes lots of packaged, processed foods and few fresh foods like vegetables and fruit raises the risk for ulcers by promoting inflammation and hindering immune functions.

The likelihood for inflammation and deficiencies is even higher if the food being consumed is low in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants to begin with. Other tips related to your diet to help control ulcers include: Ulcers can develop in various parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus , stomach and duodenum, but interestingly, research shows that men develop duodenal ulcers located in the small intestines more often than any other kind, including stomach ulcers, contrary to popular belief.

On the other hand, the opposite is true for women: They tend to develop more stomach ulcers and fewer ulcers of the duodenal. As people get older, they tend to have weaker immune systems and higher levels of inflammation , which raises the risk for H.

Many doctors refer to stomach ulcers simply as peptic ulcers. A few other types of ulcers and names that ulcers sometimes go by include:. Once a diagnosis is verified, treatment options can begin. These enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi. It is the bronchioles, or parabronchi that generally open into the microscopic alveoli in mammals and atria in birds.

Air has to be pumped from the environment into the alveoli or atria by the process of breathing which involves the muscles of respiration.

In most fish , and a number of other aquatic animals both vertebrates and invertebrates the respiratory system consists of gills , which are either partially or completely external organs, bathed in the watery environment. This water flows over the gills by a variety of active or passive means.

Gas exchange takes place in the gills which consist of thin or very flat filaments and lammelae which expose a very large surface area of highly vascularized tissue to the water. Other animals, such as insects , have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals. The respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata , that are found in various parts of the plant.

In humans and other mammals , the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract. The tract is divided into an upper and a lower respiratory tract. The upper tract includes the nose , nasal cavities , sinuses , pharynx and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds.

The lower tract Fig. The branching airways of the lower tract are often described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree Fig. The earlier generations approximately generations 0—16 , consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which simply act as air conduits , bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli approximately generations 17—23 , where gas exchange takes place.

The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right and left main bronchi. Second only in diameter to the trachea 1. Compared to the, on average, 23 number of branchings of the respiratory tree in the adult human, the mouse has only about 13 such branchings. The alveoli are the dead end terminals of the "tree", meaning that any air that enters them has to exit via the same route.

The lungs expand and contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs. Not all the air in the lungs can be expelled during maximally forced exhalation. This is the residual volume of about 1.

Volumes that include the residual volume i. Their measurement requires special techniques. The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose, or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated below, together with how they are calculated.

The number of breath cycles per minute is known as the respiratory rate. In mammals , inhalation at rest is primarily due to the contraction of the diaphragm. This is an upwardly domed sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.

When it contracts the sheet flattens, i. The contracting diaphragm pushes the abdominal organs downwards. But because the pelvic floor prevents the lowermost abdominal organs moving in that direction, the pliable abdominal contents cause the belly to bulge outwards to the front and sides, because the relaxed abdominal muscles do not resist this movement Fig.

This entirely passive bulging and shrinking during exhalation of the abdomen during normal breathing is sometimes referred as "abdominal breathing", although it is, in fact, "diaphragmatic breathing", which is not visible on the outside of the body.

Mammals only use their abdominal muscles only during forceful exhalation see Fig. Never during any form of inhalation. As the diaphragm contracts, the rib cage is simultaneously enlarged by the ribs being pulled upwards by the intercostal muscles as shown in Fig. All the ribs slant downwards from the rear to the front as shown in Fig. Thus the rib cage's transverse diameter can be increased in the same way as the antero-posterior diameter is increase by the so-called pump handle movement shown in Fig.

The enlargement of the thoracic cavity's vertical dimension by the contraction of the diaphragm, and its two horizontal dimensions by the lifting of the front and sides of the ribs, causes the intrathoracic pressure to fall. The lungs' interiors are open to the outside air, and being elastic, therefore expand to fill the increased space. The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways Fig.

In health these airways starting at the nose or mouth, and ending in the microscopic dead-end sacs called alveoli are always open, though the diameters of the various sections can be changed by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

During exhalation the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax. This returns the chest and abdomen to a position determined by their anatomical elasticity. This is the "resting mid-position" of the thorax and abdomen Fig. The volume of air that moves in or out at the nose or mouth during a single breathing cycle is called the tidal volume. During heavy breathing hyperpnea , as, for instance, during exercise, inhalation is brought about by a more powerful and greater excursion of the contracting diaphragm than at rest Fig.

In addition the " accessory muscles of inhalation " exaggerate the actions of the intercostal muscles Fig. These accessory muscles of inhalation are muscles that extend from the cervical vertebrae and base of the skull to the upper ribs and sternum , sometimes through an intermediary attachment to the clavicles.

Seen from outside the body the lifting of the clavicles during strenuous or labored inhalation is sometimes called clavicular breathing , seen especially during asthma attacks and in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During heavy breathing, exhalation is caused by relaxation of all the muscles of inhalation. But now, the abdominal muscles, instead of remaining relaxed as they do at rest , contract forcibly pulling the lower edges of the rib cage downwards front and sides Fig.

This not only drastically decreases the size of the rib cage, but also pushes the abdominal organs upwards against the diaphragm which consequently bulges deeply into the thorax Fig. The end-exhalatory lung volume is now well below the resting mid-position and contains far less air than the resting "functional residual capacity". However, in a normal mammal, the lungs cannot be emptied completely. In an adult human there is always still at least 1 liter of residual air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation.

The automatic rhythmical breathing in and out, can be interrupted by coughing, sneezing forms of very forceful exhalation , by the expression of a wide range of emotions laughing, sighing, crying out in pain, exasperated intakes of breath and by such voluntary acts as speech, singing, whistling and the playing of wind instruments.

All of these actions rely on the muscles described above, and their effects on the movement of air in and out of the lungs. Although not a form of breathing, the Valsalva maneuver involves the respiratory muscles.

It is, in fact, a very forceful exhalatory effort against a tightly closed glottis , so that no air can escape from the lungs. The abdominal muscles contract very powerfully, causing the pressure inside the abdomen and thorax to rise to extremely high levels. The Valsalva maneuver can be carried out voluntarily, but is more generally a reflex elicited when attempting to empty the abdomen during, for instance, difficult defecation, or during childbirth. Breathing ceases during this maneuver.

The primary purpose of the respiratory system is the equilibration of the partial pressures of the respiratory gases in the alveolar air with those in the pulmonary capillary blood Fig.

This process occurs by simple diffusion , [17] across a very thin membrane known as the blood—air barrier , which forms the walls of the pulmonary alveoli Fig. It consisting of the alveolar epithelial cells , their basement membranes and the endothelial cells of the alveolar capillaries Fig. The air contained within the alveoli has a semi-permanent volume of about 2. This ensures that equilibration of the partial pressures of the gases in the two compartments is very efficient and occurs very quickly.

This marked difference between the composition of the alveolar air and that of the ambient air can be maintained because the functional residual capacity is contained in dead-end sacs connected to the outside air by fairly narrow and relatively long tubes the airways: This typical mammalian anatomy combined with the fact that the lungs are not emptied and re-inflated with each breath leaving a substantial volume of air, of about 2.

Thus the animal is provided with a very special "portable atmosphere", whose composition differs significantly from the present-day ambient air. The resulting arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are homeostatically controlled.

A rise in the arterial partial pressure of CO 2 and, to a lesser extent, a fall in the arterial partial pressure of O 2 , will reflexly cause deeper and faster breathing till the blood gas tensions in the lungs, and therefore the arterial blood, return to normal.

The converse happens when the carbon dioxide tension falls, or, again to a lesser extent, the oxygen tension rises: This is very tightly controlled by the monitoring of the arterial blood gases which accurately reflect composition of the alveolar air by the aortic and carotid bodies , as well as by the blood gas and pH sensor on the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata in the brain. There are also oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors in the lungs, but they primarily determine the diameters of the bronchioles and pulmonary capillaries , and are therefore responsible for directing the flow of air and blood to different parts of the lungs.

If more carbon dioxide than usual has been lost by a short period of hyperventilation , respiration will be slowed down or halted until the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide has returned to 5.

If these homeostats are compromised, then a respiratory acidosis , or a respiratory alkalosis will occur. Oxygen has a very low solubility in water, and is therefore carried in the blood loosely combined with hemoglobin. The oxygen is held on the hemoglobin by four ferrous iron -containing heme groups per hemoglobin molecule. The reaction is therefore catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase , an enzyme inside the red blood cells.

The total concentration of carbon dioxide in the form of bicarbonate ions, dissolved CO 2 , and carbamino groups in arterial blood i. Ventilation of the lungs in mammals occurs via the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata and the pons of the brainstem. This information determines the average rate of ventilation of the alveoli of the lungs , to keep these pressures constant.

The respiratory center does so via motor nerves which activate the diaphragm and other muscles of respiration. The breathing rate increases when the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood increases. This is detected by central blood gas chemoreceptors on the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata. Exercise increases the breathing rate due to the extra carbon dioxide produced by the enhanced metabolism of the exercising muscles.

Information received from stretch receptors in the lungs limits tidal volume the depth of inhalation and exhalation. The alveoli are open via the airways to the atmosphere, with the result that alveolar air pressure is exactly the same as the ambient air pressure at sea level, at altitude, or in any artificial atmosphere e.

With expansion of the lungs through lowering of the diaphragm and expansion of the thoracic cage the alveolar air now occupies a larger volume, and its pressure falls proportionally , causing air to flow in from the surroundings, through the airways, till the pressure in the alveoli is once again at the ambient air pressure.

The reverse obviously happens during exhalation. This process of inhalation and exhalation is exactly the same at sea level, as on top of Mt. Everest , or in a diving chamber or decompression chamber.

However, as one rises above sea level the density of the air decreases exponentially see Fig. This is achieved by breathing deeper and faster i. There is, however, a complication that increases the volume of air that needs to be inhaled per minute respiratory minute volume to provide the same amount of oxygen to the lungs at altitude as at sea level.

During inhalation the air is warmed and saturated with water vapor during its passage through the nose passages and pharynx. Saturated water vapor pressure is dependent only on temperature. In dry air the partial pressure of O 2 at sea level is At the summit of Mt. This reduces the partial pressure of oxygen entering the alveoli to 5. The reduction in the partial pressure of oxygen in the inhaled air is therefore substantially greater than the reduction of the total atmospheric pressure at altitude would suggest on Mt Everest: A further minor complication exists at altitude.

If the volume of the lungs were to be instantaneously doubled at the beginning of inhalation, the air pressure inside the lungs would be halved. This happens regardless of altitude.

The driving pressure forcing air into the lungs during inhalation is therefore halved at this altitude. However, in reality, inhalation and exhalation occur far more gently and less abruptly than in the example given.

All of the above influences of low atmospheric pressures on breathing are accommodated primarily by breathing deeper and faster hyperpnea. The exact degree of hyperpnea is determined by the blood gas homeostat , which regulates the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the arterial blood.

This homeostat prioritizes the regulation of the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide over that of oxygen at sea level. If this switch occurs relatively abruptly, the hyperpnea at high altitude will cause a severe fall in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, with a consequent rise in the pH of the arterial plasma. This is one contributor to high altitude sickness. On the other hand, if the switch to oxygen homeostasis is incomplete, then hypoxia may complicate the clinical picture with potentially fatal results.

There are oxygen sensors in the smaller bronchi and bronchioles. In response to low partial pressures of oxygen in the inhaled air these sensors reflexly cause the pulmonary arterioles to constrict. At altitude this causes the pulmonary arterial pressure to rise resulting in a much more even distribution of blood flow to the lungs than occurs at sea level. At sea level the pulmonary arterial pressure is very low, with the result that the tops of the lungs receive far less blood than the bases , which are relatively over-perfused with blood.

It is only in middle of the lungs that the blood and air flow to the alveoli are ideally matched. This is a further important contributor to the acclimatatization to high altitudes and low oxygen pressures.

When the oxygen content of the blood is chronically low, as at high altitude, the oxygen-sensitive kidney cells secrete erythropoietin often known only by its abbreviated form as EPO [28] into the blood. In other words, at the same arterial partial pressure of O 2 , a person with a high hematocrit carries more oxygen per liter of blood than a person with a lower hematocrit does. High altitude dwellers therefore have higher hematocrits than sea-level residents. Irritation of nerve endings within the nasal passages or airways , can induce a cough reflex and sneezing.

These responses cause air to be expelled forcefully from the trachea or nose , respectively. In this manner, irritants caught in the mucus which lines the respiratory tract are expelled or moved to the mouth where they can be swallowed. This increases the expired airflow rate to dislodge and remove any irritant particle or mucus. Respiratory epithelium can secrete a variety of molecules that aid in the defense of the lungs.

These include secretory immunoglobulins IgA , collectins , defensins and other peptides and proteases , reactive oxygen species , and reactive nitrogen species.

These secretions can act directly as antimicrobials to help keep the airway free of infection. A variety of chemokines and cytokines are also secreted that recruit the traditional immune cells and others to site of infections.

Surfactant immune function is primarily attributed to two proteins: These proteins can bind to sugars on the surface of pathogens and thereby opsonize them for uptake by phagocytes. It also regulates inflammatory responses and interacts with the adaptive immune response.

Surfactant degradation or inactivation may contribute to enhanced susceptibility to lung inflammation and infection. Most of the respiratory system is lined with mucous membranes that contain mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue , which produces white blood cells such as lymphocytes.

The lungs make a surfactant , a surface-active lipoprotein complex phospholipoprotein formed by type II alveolar cells. It floats on the surface of the thin watery layer which lines the insides of the alveoli, reducing the water's surface tension.

The surface tension of a watery surface the water-air interface tends to make that surface shrink. The more acute the curvature of the water-air interface the greater the tendency for the alveolus to collapse.

Firstly the surface tension inside the alveoli resists expansion of the alveoli during inhalation i. Surfactant reduces the surface tension and therefore makes the lungs more compliant , or less stiff, than if it were not there. Secondly, the diameters of the alveoli increase and decrease during the breathing cycle. This means that the alveoli have a greater tendency to collapse i. Since surfactant floats on the watery surface, its molecules are more tightly packed together when the alveoli shrink during exhalation.

The tendency for the alveoli to collapse is therefore almost the same at the end of exhalation as at the end of inhalation. Thirdly, the surface tension of the curved watery layer lining the alveoli tends to draw water from the lung tissues into the alveoli. Surfactant reduces this danger to negligible levels, and keeps the alveoli dry. Pre-term babies who are unable to manufacture surfactant have lungs that tend to collapse each time they breathe out.

Unless treated, this condition, called respiratory distress syndrome , is fatal. Basic scientific experiments, carried out using cells from chicken lungs, support the potential for using steroids as a means of furthering development of type II alveolar cells.

The lung vessels contain a fibrinolytic system that dissolves clots that may have arrived in the pulmonary circulation by embolism , often from the deep veins in the legs. They also release a variety of substances that enter the systemic arterial blood, and they remove other substances from the systemic venous blood that reach them via the pulmonary artery.

Some prostaglandins are removed from the circulation, while others are synthesized in the lungs and released into the blood when lung tissue is stretched. The lungs activate one hormone. The physiologically inactive decapeptide angiotensin I is converted to the aldosterone -releasing octapeptide, angiotensin II , in the pulmonary circulation. The reaction occurs in other tissues as well, but it is particularly prominent in the lungs.

Angiotensin II also has a direct effect on arteriolar walls , causing arteriolar vasoconstriction , and consequently a rise in arterial blood pressure. The converting enzyme also inactivates bradykinin. Four other peptidases have been identified on the surface of the pulmonary endothelial cells. The movement of gas through the larynx , pharynx and mouth allows humans to speak , or phonate. Vocalization, or singing, in birds occurs via the syrinx , an organ located at the base of the trachea.

The vibration of air flowing across the larynx vocal cords , in humans, and the syrinx, in birds, results in sound. Because of this, gas movement is vital for communication purposes. Panting in dogs, cats, birds and some other animals provides a means of reducing body temperature, by evaporating saliva in the mouth instead of evaporating sweat on the skin.

Disorders of the respiratory system can be classified into several general groups:. Disorders of the respiratory system are usually treated by a pulmonologist and respiratory therapist. Where there is an inability to breathe or an insufficiency in breathing a medical ventilator may be used. Horses are obligate nasal breathers which means that they are different from many other mammals because they do not have the option of breathing through their mouths and must take in air through their noses.

The elephant is the only mammal known to have no pleural space. Rather, the parietal and visceral pleura are both composed of dense connective tissue and joined to each other via loose connective tissue.

In the elephant the lungs are attached to the diaphragm and breathing relies mainly on the diaphragm rather than the expansion of the ribcage. The respiratory system of birds differs significantly from that found in mammals. Firstly, they have rigid lungs which do not expand and contract during the breathing cycle.

Instead an extensive system of air sacs Fig. Inhalation and exhalation are brought about by alternately increasing and decreasing the volume of the entire thoraco-abdominal cavity or coelom using both their abdominal and costal muscles. This pushes the sternal ribs, to which they are attached at almost right angles, downwards and forwards, taking the sternum with its prominent keel in the same direction Fig.

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