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Surgery is the primary -- and likely the only curative -- treatment for pancreatic cancer. The second method of gallstone dissolution, called contact dissolution, involves the direct injection of a medication, called methyl tert-butyl ether, into the gallbladder. Kelley still takes his daily enema. Examples of appendix in a Sentence In your textbooks, turn to Appendix 3: Apple juice high in malic acid or ortho-phosphoric acid, which acts as a solvent in the bile to weaken adhesions between solid globules. This helps with the transmission of the sound waves.
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Plants with a thick waxy layer will reduce water loss through the leaves. Plants can have needle-like leaves. Hair-like fibre on the leaf traps air close to the leaf. It creates a microclimate around the leaf. As water is lost from the leaf the microclimate becomes very humid. The hairs prevent this humid air from being blown away. Leaves can be folded. The leaf blade is curled in on itself so that the stomata are on the inside. This creates a humid micro-climate which slows down water loss.
Transport in humans Transportation in humans is done by the circulatory system which involves blood being pumped around the body by the heart. Humans have a double circulatory system which means that the blood is pumped twice around the body - once to the heart and another to the rest of the body. Blood transports O 2 , CO 2 , nutrients, hormones and waste products so the movement must be fast. The heart is really two pumps stuck together. There are two chambers to each side of the heart.
The first chamber is called the atrium and is the smaller of the two chambers. The larger one is called the ventricle. This chamber is the more powerful of the two as it has to force blood out of the heart.
The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side of the body receives oxygenated blood and pumps it around the body so its force must be stronger. In the heart both sides pump together at the same time. The blood must flow through the heart in one direction. Blood enters the atria from the veins and is then forced into the ventricles.
The ventricles force the blood into the arteries. There are a number of sphincter muscles and valves that prevent blood flowing in the wrong direction.
The valves are a little like parachutes. When blood flows the wrong way the valves bulge out, blocking the path. Heartbeat Involves three distinct stages: The atria and the ventricles relax. The semi-lunar valves close, preventing back flow into the ventricles. The elastic walls of the aorta and pulmonary artery contract, forcing blood towards the body and the lungs. Blood from the veins flows into the atria, which begin to fill. Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium, and oxygenated blood flows into the left atrium.
The atria contract, forcing blood into the ventricles, which then fill up. Sphincter ring muscles close off the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins prevents backflow of blood from the atria into the main veins. The ventricles contract, forcing blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery. This happens because the pressure of blood in the ventricles is higher than the pressure in the atria. The valve cord prevents the valve from being pushed back too far. The walls of the aorta and pulmonary artery expand.
The heart rate can be measured by the heart pace. There are muscles in the wall of the heart that receive hormones from the brain telling it to speed up or slow down e. The vessel supplying the heart with blood is called the coronary artery. This is one of the most important arteries in the body because it supplies the heart with all the nutrients it needs. If this artery is blocked the heart will slow down or stop causing a heart attack. This is how coronary heart diseases CHD happen - by the build up of fats inside the vessel.
The more the amount of fats build up, the slower the heart pumps and the more easily the heart gets tired. There are different types of blood vessels. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. These vessels split up into smaller ones called arterioles.
Arterioles split up into tiny blood vessels called capillaries. It is from these vessels that movement of particles to and from the blood takes place. Capillaries join together to form larger vessels called venules which join together to form veins. White blood cells and immunity. Respiration is the chemical breakdown of food molecules to release energy. Breathing is the mechanical movement to ventilate the respiratory surface. It includes inhaling and exhaling. Gaseous exchange is the diffusion of O 2 on a moist surface into an organism and the diffusion of CO 2 out of the organism.
Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration. In this process glucose is completely oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. This process is slow and is controlled by many enzymes and the energy produced is not used immediately but stored as ATP. The energy released from ATP can be used in many activities such as: In this process the energy produced is relatively small and the product is variable.
Alcohol can be produced when anaerobic respiration happens during fermentation in yeast. In the human body, lactic acid is a product of anaerobic respiration during heavy exercise. The lactic acid produced needs to be broken down further by oxygen. That is why we continue to breathe heavily after exercising.
The oxygen required for the subsequent breakdown of lactic acid is called oxygen debt. The lungs are located in the chest inside a lubricated membrane called the pleural membrane.
This allows the lungs to move freely inside the pleural cavity. The lungs are connected to the outside via the trachea windpipe. The trachea is a tube kept in a rigid shape due to rings of cartilage. The larynx or voice box is located at the top of the trachea while at the bottom end it branches into two bronchi. These lead into the lungs. The bronchi in turn branch off into smaller and smaller bronchioles. These end in tiny air sacs called alveoli.
It is here that gaseous exchange takes place. The surface area of all these alveoli is very large so as to be able to absorb oxygen very quickly. The lungs are very delicate and can easily be damaged. The cells lining the airways have very tiny hair like structures called cilia on them. These cilia are coated with sticky mucus.
The beating cilia force the mucus and any particles of dirt up out of the lungs. These together increase the volume of the chest.
Air is drawn into the lungs because the the pressure inside them is lowered as the chest volume is increased. When we breathe out the diaphragm relaxes as does the intercostal muscles.
This decreases the volume of the chest, increasing the pressure. This forces air out of the lungs. So it is the changing volume of the chest which causes air to enter and leave the lungs. Gaseous Exchange The walls of the alveoli are very thin and so are the walls surrounding the alveoli so that is why diffusion of O 2 and CO 2 can take place. Note that other gases do not diffuse through the walls because the concentration of these gases inside and outside of the body are the same.
This is the substance which makes smoking addictive. Nicotine is a stimulant which can make the heart beat faster and increase the amount of adrenaline released. It also makes the smoker more shaky and causes stress. This is produced due to incomplete burning of the tobacco. This gas binds irreversibly to the haemoglobin in red blood cells preventing them from carrying oxygen. If the smoker is pregnant the baby will get less oxygen than usual. It prevents the cilia in the lungs from working and so the dirt and tar cannot be removed from the lungs.
It also damages the alveoli and decrease the lungs' surface area. Urinary system The urinary system consists of 2 kidneys , 2 ureters, a bladder and a urethra. The job of the kidney is to purify the blood as it enters it. The blood enters the kidney via the aorta and is filtered. The clean blood then returns to the heart and the urine goes down the ureter and to the bladder and then to the urethra.
The outside of the kidney is called the cortex and the inner part is called the medulla and the part connecting to the ureters is called the pelvis the part in the middle. Urea is a harmful substance made in the liver. It is made when proteins are broken down. A nephron is the smallest unit that filters the blood. The rest of the substances then go down the loop of Henle. Then the rest of the unwanted substances are passed to the ureter and then out of the body. Most of the nephron is in the cortex only.
The loop of Henle is in the medulla and the collecting duct heads to the pelvis and collected as the ureter there are about 1 million nephrons in each kidney. Homeostasis is the maintenance of the conditions of the internal body environment. The conditions are maintained by hormones which are secreted by some organs. Hormones are chemical messages and chemicals released from an endocrine gland into the blood controlled by the brain. Negative feedback is when the hormone has done its effect and the brain orders it to stop.
Temperature can be maintained by the skin using the following ways: Release sweat which evaporates, taking heat away from the body and decreasing the body temperature. Erects to trap air, acting as a layer of heat insulation. This traps a thick layer of air between the hairs, creating a insulator layer Hair erector muscles relax, causing hairs to flatten. This layer of trapped air becomes thinner so heat is easily lost from the body by radiation and convection.
Sweat glands Less active so that latent heat is not lost from the body Very active so more water is brought to the sweat glands during vasodilation, thus more sweat is secreted and more latent heat is lost when sweat evaporates. The many types of pancreatic endocrine tumors are all uncommon or rare, and have varied outlooks. However the incidence of these cancers has been rising sharply; it is not clear to what extent this reflects increased detection, especially through medical imaging , of tumors that would be very slow to develop.
Insulinomas largely benign and gastrinomas are the most common types. A solid pseudopapillary tumour is a low-grade malignant tumour of the pancreas of papillary architecture that typically afflicts young women.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels within optimal ranges, and its lack can lead to high blood sugar.
As an untreated chronic condition, diabetic neuropathy can result. Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age but is most often diagnosed before adulthood. For people living with type 1 diabetes, insulin injections are critical for survival. An experimental procedure to treat type 1 diabetes is the transplantation of pancreatic islet cells from a donor into the patient's liver so that the cells can produce the deficient insulin. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common form of diabetes.
The causes for high blood sugar in this form of diabetes usually are a combination of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, with both genetic and environmental factors playing an important role in the development of the disease. The management of type 2 diabetes relies on a series of changes in diet and physical activity with the purpose of reducing blood sugar levels to normal ranges and increasing insulin sensitivity. The pancreas was first identified by Herophilus — BC , a Greek anatomist and surgeon.
It was only in when Oskar Minkowski discovered that removing the pancreas from a dog caused it to become diabetic insulin was later discovered by Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best in Pancreatic tissue is present in all vertebrates , but its precise form and arrangement varies widely. There may be up to three separate pancreases, two of which arise from ventral buds, and the other dorsally. In most species including humans , these fuse in the adult, but there are several exceptions.
Even when a single pancreas is present, two or three pancreatic ducts may persist, each draining separately into the duodenum or equivalent part of the foregut. Birds , for example, typically have three such ducts. In teleosts , and a few other species such as rabbits , there is no discrete pancreas at all, with pancreatic tissue being distributed diffusely across the mesentery and even within other nearby organs, such as the liver or spleen.
In a few teleost species, the endocrine tissue has fused to form a distinct gland within the abdominal cavity, but otherwise it is distributed among the exocrine components.
The most primitive arrangement, however, appears to be that of lampreys and lungfish , in which pancreatic tissue is found as a number of discrete nodules within the wall of the gut itself, with the exocrine portions being little different from other glandular structures of the intestine. The pancreas of calf ris de veau and lamb ris d'agneau , and, less commonly, of beef and pork , are used as food under the culinary name of sweetbread.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pancreas disambiguation. Head of pancreas 2: Uncinate process of pancreas 3: Body of pancreas 5: Anterior surface of pancreas 6: Inferior surface of pancreas 7: Superior margin of pancreas 8: Anterior margin of pancreas 9: Inferior margin of pancreas Tail of pancreas This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology.
Diabetes mellitus type 1. Diabetes mellitus type 2. Explicit use of et al. Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 5 November Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul Gray's anatomy for students.
Institution for Anatomy, Uppsala. Larsen's human embryology 4th ed. Human embryology and developmental biology.
Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology 12th ed. Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. Illustrated by Robert Britton 21st ed. Retrieved 8 June A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.
Current treatment options in oncology. World Cancer Report Archived from the original PDF on Williams Textbook of Endocrinology 12th ed. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th ed. History of the Pancreas: Pancreatic cancer starts in the cells of the pancreas.
A cancerous malignant tumour is a group of cancer cells that can grow into and destroy nearby tissue. It can also spread metastasize to other parts of the body. Cells in the pancreas sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes may lead to non-cancerous benign tumours such as a pancreatic pseudocyst or serous cystic neoplasm SCN. Changes to cells of the pancreas can also cause precancerous conditions.
The most common precancerous conditions of the pancreas are mucinous cystic neoplasm MCN , intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm IPMN and solid and pseudopapillary neoplasm. But in some cases, changes to pancreatic cells can cause cancer. Most often, pancreatic cancer starts in cells of the pancreatic duct. This type of cancer is called ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.
Another rare type of tumour can start in endocrine cells in the pancreas. These types of tumours are called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours pNETs. Depending on how different the cells are from normal cells differentiation and how fast the cells are growing grade these tumours can be classified as a precancerous or cancerous tumour called pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Find out more about pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours pNETs. The pancreas is a flat, pear-shaped gland behind the stomach.
It is part of the digestive system. The pancreas is also part of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is the group of glands and cells in the body that make and release hormones which control many functions such as growth, reproduction, sleep, hunger and metabolism into the blood.