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Management of the unwell newborn. In one investigation, scientists found that there were mg of total sterols in every g of pumpkin seed kernel. J Am Coll Nutr ;24 6 Suppl: Inside the effort to protect the elderly Perhaps no other population is as vulnerable during a hurricane as older adults. It is linked to insulin resistance , metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis.
Women of Reproductive Age: Recommendations for Consumption of Fish
At a United Nations Summit in , member nations declared eight Millennium Development Goals MDGs , which reflected the major challenges facing human development globally, to be achieved by According to the UN, these MDGs provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas.
In a book titled " To Save Humanity " was published, with nearly essays regarding today's most pressing global health issues. The DALY is a summary measure that combines the impact of illness , disability , and mortality by measuring the time lived with disability and the time lost due to premature mortality.
One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of "healthy" life. The DALY for a disease is the sum of the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years lost due to disability for incident cases of the health condition. QALYs combine expected survival with expected quality of life into a single number: QALY calculations are based on measurements of the value that individuals place on expected years of survival.
Measurements can be made in several ways: Infant mortality and child mortality for children under age 5 are more specific than DALYs or QALYs in representing the health in the poorest sections of a population, and are thus especially useful when focusing on health equity. Morbidity measures include incidence rate , prevalence , and cumulative incidence , with incidence rate referring to the risk of developing a new health condition within a specified period of time.
Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during a time period, morbidity is better expressed as a proportion or a rate.
The diseases and health conditions targeted by global health initiatives are sometimes grouped under " diseases of poverty " versus " diseases of affluence ", although the impact of globalization is increasingly blurring the lines between the two. Infections of the respiratory tract and middle ear are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
The spread of respiratory infections is exacerbated by crowded conditions, and poverty is associated with more than a fold increase in the relative burden of lung infections. Dehydration due to diarrhea can be effectively treated through oral rehydration therapy with dramatic reductions in mortality. While hygienic measures alone may be insufficient for the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea,  it can be prevented by a safe and potentially cost-effective vaccine.
Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age in many developing countries: Human immunodeficiency virus HIV is transmitted through unprotected sex, unclean needles, blood transfusions, and from mother to child during birth or lactation.
Globally, HIV is primarily spread through sexual intercourse. The infection damages the immune system, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS and eventually, death. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Symptoms may include fever, headaches, chills, and nausea. Each year, there are approximately million cases of malaria worldwide, most commonly among children and pregnant women in developing countries.
In , about million children were underweight, and undernutrition contributes to about one third of child deaths around the world. Infection can further contribute to malnutrition. Violence against women has been defined as: Although statistics can be difficult to obtain as many cases go unreported, it is estimated that one in every five women faces some form of violence during her lifetime, in some cases leading to serious injury or even death.
For example, the rate of type 2 diabetes , associated with obesity , has been on the rise in countries previously plagued by hunger. In low-income countries, the number of individuals with diabetes is expected to increase from 84 million to million by More than one billion people were treated for at least one neglected tropical disease in They are variously caused by bacteria Trachoma, Leprosy , viruses Dengue,  Rabies , protozoa Human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas , and helminths Schistosomiasis, Onchocerciasis, Soil transmitted helminths.
Global interventions for improved child health and survival include the promotion of breastfeeding, zinc supplementation, vitamin A fortification, salt iodization , hygiene interventions such as hand-washing, vaccinations, and treatments of severe acute malnutrition. Many populations face an "outcome gap", which refers to the gap between members of a population who have access to medical treatment versus those who do not. Countries facing outcome gaps lack sustainable infrastructure.
In the private sector, highest- and lowest-priced medicines were Treatments were generally unaffordable, costing as much as 15 days wages for a course of the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Journalist Laurie Garrett argues that the field of global health is not plagued by a lack of funds, but that more funds do not always translate into positive outcomes. The problem lies in the way these funds are allocated, as they are often disproportionately allocated to alleviating a single disease.
The Global Health Security Agenda GHSA is "a multilateral, multi-sector effort that includes 60 participating countries and numerous private and public international organizations focused on building up worldwide health security capabilities toward meeting such threats" as the spread of infectious disease.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the bibliographic database, see Global Health database. Timeline of global health. Infant mortality and Child mortality.
Maternal health and Reproductive health. Am J Public Health. Why Global Health Matters. J Public Health Policy. Public Health and Preventive Medicine 15th ed. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79 8 , Global health is public health.
The Lancet, , Global health impacts of floods: Epidemiologic Reviews, 27 1 , Disease and Demography in the Americas. The global economic burden of noncommunicable diseases. WHO recommendations for prevention and treatment of maternal peripartum infections. The primary audience for this guideline includes health-care professionals who are responsible for developing national and local health-care protocols and policies, as well as managers of maternal and child health programmes and policy-makers in all settings.
The guideline will also be useful to WHO recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. Optimizing outcomes for women in labour at the global level requires evidence-based guidance of health workers to improve care through appropriate patient selection and use of effective interventions. The goal of the present recommendations is to consolidate the guidance for effective interventions WHO recommendations for augmentation of labour.
Health professionals responsible for developing national and local protocols and health policies constitute the main target audience of these recommendations. Obstetricians, midwives, general medical practitioners, health care managers and public health policy-makers, particularly in under-resourced settings are also targeted. WHO recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage.
Policy-makers should consider educational, regulatory, financial, and personal and professional support interventions to recruit and retain qualified health workers in rural and remote areas.
WHO recommendation on recruitment and retention of staff in rural and remote areas. Task shifting the promotion of health-related behaviours for maternal and newborn health ad to a broad range of cadres, including lay health workers, auxiliary nurses, nurses, midwives and doctors is recommended.
Task shifting the distribution of recommended nutritional supplements and intermittent WHO recommendation on task shifting components of antenatal care delivery. Packages of interventions that include household and community mobilization and antenatal home visits are recommended to improve antenatal care utilization and perinatal health outcomes, particularly in rural settings with low access to health services. WHO recommendation on community mobilization and antenatal home visits.
Topics Adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Go to section page. Information, education and counselling. Adolescent pregnancy and contraception. Preconception, pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care. Medical problems during pregnancy. Disorders affecting the unborn baby. Improving health system performance. Delivery of healthcare services.
Leadership and governance arrangements. Diagnosis and detection of STIs. Gynaecology, infertility and cancers. Gynaecological cancers and disorders.