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Potassium is a nutritional metal element that is required in large quantities by the body. A triglyceride is a glycerol that has been esterified with three fatty acids. However, in , I was suggested a very high strength Folic Acid supplement 20, mcg , which another doctor muscle tested on me and said that it did nothing. If you are taking large amounts of magnesium and you do not do this, then you will experience large amounts of pungent wind, which is a sign of poor protein digestion i. Thus the folate naturally present in a person's diet can be excluded from the equation, or at least lowered to a significant degree, such that only a small amount of 5-MTHF will be produced from it.

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Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Pets. Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Pets. Simply provide an email address below. You must provide a valid email address. Send me a copy. Your message has been sent. Anxiety and Fish Oil. Curcumin for Blood Sugar Control. Recent answers to our members' questions.

Is Your Oil Supplement Fresh? Which Product Are Best? Which Supplements Are Best? Which Brands Are Best? Over brands tested. Choose one below or see a complete list. I believe it is the 1 source for dieticians and physicians for sorting truth from fiction and finding out which supplements include their ingredients and perform as manufacturers claim.

A Frontline report about supplements and safety suggests consumers ask "Has the product been tested by independent labs" and lists ConsumerLab. Since each substance is different and has different properties and effects, the conversion factor to get from U to ug will vary per sustance.

There is no hard and fast rule. It is best to consult the manufacturer's own unit conversion. People suffering from CFS or related conditions frequently are suffering from oxidative and free radical damage as a result of years of intrusion by foreign organisms, environmental toxification, heavy metals and toxins from fried foods etc. Antioxidant supplementation in such individuals is critical. Antioxidants are also present in a variety of green leafy foods and algae.

It may not recommended to take more than the recommended daily dosage of Vitamin A in the form of pre-formed Retinyl Palmitate , as it may cause osteoporosis over a number of years. This does not appear to be an issue with Beta-Carotene which is converted into retinol Vitamin A by the body as and when it is required a provitamin. Too high a daily dosage of Beta-Carotene can make one's skin go orange after a while.

This is the body's way of storing it. If this happens then simply reduce the dosage and normal colouration will return! Chris Masterjohn argues that high levels of Vitamin A intake are fine as long as it is taken in a natural form i.

Mercola believes that vitamin A deficiency is still a problem in developing countries, whereas in developed countries, it is much more uncommon and vitamin A toxicity is much more commonplace.

To quote a cliche, always read the label! Vitamin C is water soluble and can be safely taken in high doses. Natural sources rich in Vitamin C include Acerola berries and cereal grasses discussed in the Antioxidant section below and of course to a lesser extent citrus fruit.

There is no toxic level of Vitmain C as such, as the body induces diahorrea when it has reached its maximum dosage, which is around 10g per day.

Buffered Vitamin C i. Ascorbate salts of usually Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium - with a more neutral pH can also be used, and half of its weight is roughly the Ascorbate component. Clearly diarrhea will arrive sooner with Buffered Vitamin C because of all the Magnesium. Mega vitamin doses of A, C and E should only really be taken for short periods of time, for example during winter months. Vitamin C is however reputed to be a pro-oxidant at high levels which can result in DNA damage.

Vitamin C is also a weak chelating agent of heavy metals and high doses in those who have large amounts of heavy metals circulating may result in over-detoxification symptoms.

Where you choose to obtain your antioxidants from is your decision. Not all those with related conditions have any oxidant damage, but it is healthy to have a good intake of antioxidants for anti-ageing reasons. Dr Martin Pall argues that natural sources of Vitamin E are far superior to synthetic sources with respect to scavenging rogue oxidant molecules such as Peroxynitrite.

Gamma-tocopherol is one of few biologically active types of 8 different tocopherol found in Vitamin E. Supplementation of one form tends to lower other forms in the body.

Thus it is better to supplement a natural source of Vitamin that is rich er in the Gamma-Tocopherol to aid rather than inhibit Peroxynitrite scavenging. It should be noted that whilst Vitamin E, as well as being a blood pressure lowering nutrient, also increases the strength of the heart beat.

Dosages should be increased slowly as a rapid increase in dosage may temporarily elevate blood pressure. High dosages may increase symptoms of heart palpitations so you may need to find the dosage that works best for you. If one suffers from palpitations at night, whilst in the supine position, then one may elect to take one's dosage of Gamma E in the morning and possibly mid-afternoon only avoiding the evening.

Those who are suffering from Rheumatic Fever or Rheumatic Cardiac Disease damaged valves in the heart muscle should avoid dosages of over IU per day.

It may also help to recycle oxidised Glutathione into reduced Glutathione, as other antioxidants tend to do. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin. It occurs in two main forms D2 and D3. D2 ergocalciferol is derived from plant and fungal sources in very low concentrations , whereas D3 cholecalciferol is found in sufficient quantities in cod liver oil and oily fish.

If supplementated, it is best absorbed with oily type foods. D3 is also produced naturally by the human body, by exposure of the skin to UVB radiation, the form that penetrates only the epidermal layers of the skin. Please note that UVA is not required and is harmful to human cells.

UVB and UVC are also harmful, and penetrate further into the skin, but also have beneficial effects in small exposures. At this solar elevation, which occurs daily within the tropics, daily during the spring and summer seasons in temperate regions, and almost never within the arctic circles, adequate amounts of vitamin D3 can be made in the skin after only ten to fifteen minutes of sun exposure at least two times per week to the face, arms, hands, or back without sunscreen.

With longer exposure to UVB rays, an equilibrium is achieved in the skin, and the vitamin simply degrades as fast as it is generated' 'Exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time does not cause vitamin D toxicity. This is because within about 20 minutes of ultraviolet exposure in light skinned individuals times longer for pigmented skin the concentration of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium, and any further vitamin D that is produced is degraded.

This is recognized and repaired by the body. Then the melanin production is increased which leads to a long lasting tan. This tan occurs with a 2 day lag phase after irradiation, but it is much less harmful and long lasting than the one obtained from UVA. However some tanning lotions and sprays available in the market doesn't require UV exposition.

UVB phototherapy does not require additional medications or topical preparations for the therapeutic benefit; only the light exposure is needed.

However, phototherapy can be effective when used in conjunction with certain topical treatments such as anthralin, coal tar, and Vitamin A and D derivatives, or systemic treatments such as methotrexate and soriatane. UVA long wave or black light: The toxic effects of UV from natural sunlight and therapeutic artificial lamps are a major concern for human health. The major acute effects of UV irradiation on normal human skin comprise sunburn inflammation erythema, tanning, and local or systemic immunosuppression.

In the past UVA was considered less harmful, but today it is known that it can contribute to skin cancer via the indirect DNA damage free radicals and reactive oxygen species.

It penetrates deeply but it does not cause sunburn. Because it does not cause reddening of the skin erythema it cannot be measured in the SPF testing. Some scientists blame the absence of UVA filters in sunscreens for the higher melanoma-risk that was found for sunscreen users. Other UVA blocking compounds found in sunscreen include zinc oxide and avobenzone.

Cantaloupe extract, rich in the compound superoxide dismutase SOD , can be bound with gliadin the Gluten extract to form glisodin , an orally-effective protectant against UVB radiation. However, this is a one sided argument, and whilst it may make a valid point about vitamin D production, it does not take into account daily exposure to the light at times when not wearing sun cream or indeed the excessive exposure to UV radiation that would otherwise occur. Whilst this could to some extent be mitigated by antioxidant supplementation, it will not prevent sunburn or premature ageing.

However, one might argue that if one knew one was not going to wear sun cream, one would not be on the beach tanning all day. But one should bear in mind that many people are sunburnt whilst out in the sun for short periods of time during the day, rather than sitting in the shade all day, and some exposure is unavoidable, hence sun tan lotion on the nose, face or shoulders being useful on occasion.

It does not also take into account dietary factors, and assumes that sunbathers will not have a sufficient dietary intake of cod liver oil or oily fish. Public-health organizations recommend that people protect themselves for example, by applying sunscreen to the skin and wearing a hat when the UV index is 3 or higher;' The UV index depends largely on the angle of the sun.

The highest angle is always at solar noon not the same as time zone noon. Your local weather forecast or weather web site can provide you with a UV Index rating for your exact geographical location.

At UV Index 3, there is 'little risk of harm from unprotected sun exposure' but the general recommendation is to 'Wear sunglasses and use sunscreen, cover the body with clothing and a hat, and seek shade around midday when the sun is most intense.

These wavelengths are present in natural, outside light when the UV index is greater than 3. Joanna Owens, senior science information officer for Cancer Research, has stated that "A little bit of sun goes a long way.

The amount of exposure you need to top up your Vitamin D is always less than the amount needed to tan or burn, which increases the risk of skin cancer" www.

However, it is possible to take too much orally, and Vitamin D is toxic in high dosages. Whilst below the 'safe' limit, this caused huge problems, including intestinal problems and even an inability to defecate properly for 6 months. It is more sensible in extreme cases to start with a slightly lower dosage, perhaps IU per day or so, and build up if necessary.

This friend of mine subsequently fared better with a Vitamin D emulsion product oil in water emulsion with D3 oil dispersed microscopically for better absorption rather than Vitamin D capsules. This may vary from individual to individual. Please see the Hormone and Neurotransmitter page for more discussion regarding sufficient exposure to light.

Vitamin D supplementation is used to help fight cancer. B-vitamins in general are very low in our western diets. B-vitamins in general are highly water soluble, and levels can therefore drop off very quickly. Years of shortage and inefficient absorption may result in B-vitamin deficiencies of astonomical scale! Vitamins B12, B7 folic acid and B6 are required for methylation processes in the body addition of a carbon atom to a carbon chain , in particular concerned with the production of stomach acid and amino acid conversion.

All B-vitamins are involved in metabolism and a deficiency in any one can result in a variety of biochemical and metabolic problems. In addition, B-vitamins are absorbed enzymatically from the digestive tract, rather than just relying on osmosis, and individuals with CFS often have inadequate number of or inactive enzymes responsible for such absorption for specific B-vitamins; let alone the necessary nutrients and sufficient enzymatic activity for the conversion of the synthetic forms or naturally occurring forms in food into the active, coenzymatic forms of these vitamins required by the cells of the body.

Many enzymatic reactions are catalysed by intracellular Magnesium which is often very low in CFS cases. This is why many individuals with CFS, despite taking large quantities of B-vitamins, are not able to effectively absorb them or utilise them. To understand the importance of B-vitamins, please see the Homocysteine Metabolism and Glutathione production section below, the Iron and Red Blood Cell Production section above, and also the Neurotransmitter Stress Hormone Production page and Mitochondrial Function page, as B-vitamins play a vital role in these processes.

The importance of sufficient B-vitamins and availability cannot be stated enough in CFS cases. Paul Cheney argues that it is better to take the vitamin in the form the body actually uses, rather than its precursor, as the body requires energy to convert them, and amino acid and other chemical conversion in the body in a CFS patient is already flawed, i.

This is something that I am in agreement with, particularly for chronic cases, ATP being only one requirement of several for converting a B-vitamin from it's consumed form to its active form, often involving a series of biochemical steps. These additional conversion steps can easily be bypassed with the supplemental B-vitamins at least, rendering them immediately bio-available and ready to take part in essential bodily enzymatic biochemical reactions - in theory. In , Paul Cheney changed his views on certain B-vitamins, suggesting that active forms of Folic acid and B12 were likely to be 'toxic' to CFS patients as a whole.

Clearly this is not entirely the case, but a minority of patients do seem to react badly to even the active forms of certain B-vitamins if taken daily but not when taken a few days apart when they have a beneficial effect. The exact cause in such individuals may vary from person to person. One such individual claims not to experience problems with B-vitamins if ingested in natural food-source forms, but does experience problems with B-vitamin supplements, active or non-active forms, and only takes the latter every few days; but strangely does not suffer these effects with synthetic supplements if he had not rested properly during the night.

Whether this is an issue with the form of the vitamins or the amounts is not certain. The vast majority of CFS patients however seem to react positively to supplementing those B-vitamins which are low, in a variety of forms synthetic or food-sourced.

More information about Cheney's latest theories can be seen on the Cardiac Insufficiency page. Thiamine, Thiamin or Aneurin, Thiamin performs many critical functions in the body and is not infrequently low in sufferers of CFS or related conditions. It contributes to the healthy functioning of the brain, muscles and nervous system.

It is essential for energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, and acts as a coenzyme in vital cellular reactions. Most thiamine is serum is bound to proteins, mainly albumin. B Whilst supplemental Thiamine is generally in the form of free Thiamine, and is the transport form of B1, there are 4 other types of Thiamine, which are phosphorylated enzymatically.

Thiamine Monophosphate ThMP has no known physiological role and is a transport form of Thiamine, and intermediate form of Thiamine. ThDP is a coenzyme for several enzymes that catalyse the transfer of two carbon units and dehydrogenation of 2-xoxacids alpha-keto acids. Several of these enzymes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and ATP production, as part of the Krebs cycle.

ThDP also helps to remove excess lactic acid a cause of muscle ache. It is thought to play a part in cell energy metabolism. It is also found in bacteria, fungi and plants as well as animals. ThMP and free unphosphoylated thiamine are present in plasma, milk, cerebrospinal fluid and extracellular fluids. Whilst the highly phosphorylated forms of Thiamine are unable to cross cell membranes, ThMP and free thiamine are. Thiamine and its metabolites are excreted in the urine as with all other B-vitamins.

Other forms of Thiamine include Allithiamines. These are found naturally occurring in garlic, or more accurately speaking, formed when a garlic bulb is crushed - a disulphide derivative of Thiamine formed through enzymatic activity. Allithiamine was first discovered in Japan in It is a lipid-soluble form of Thiamine. Thiamine is water soluble, and so a lipid-soluble form can be more easiliy absorbed in cases of severe Thiamine deficiency. One synthetic form of Allithiamine is Thiamine Tetrahydrofurfurl Disulfide TTFD , which has many therapeutic uses in medicine, known to promote sulphation and support the immune system, as well as providing antioxidant properties.

TTFD is also a mobilising agent for heavy metals, helping to release them from the tissues for excretion from the body. The disulfide group is believed to form a large part of its therapeutic action. TTFD is a useful form of Thiamine supplementation in Thiamine deficient individuals on account of its lipid-soluble properties.

TTFD is sometimes referred to as Allithiamine. According to Doctor's Best, it is fat-soluble and more physiologically active than Thiamin. It raises the blood levels of TPP and stimulates Transkotelease, a cellular enzyme essential for maintenance of normal glucose metabolic pathways. Uptake of Thiamine is inhibited to some degree by a Folate B9 deficiency.

Thiamine deficiency can also be caused by malnutrition, a thiaminase rich diet e. Low levels can result in neurodegeneration, wasting and death. Low B1 levels have been observed in freshwater marine animals e. Crocodiles in disrupted ecosystems where gradual brain damage brain death has occurred, resulting in an inability to co-ordinate and control muscular movement, resulting in an inability to swim or move properly, and drowning. Thiamin is described on Wikipedia below. Pork meat and yeast high in glutamate are particularly rich sources of Thiamine.

As far as supplementation goes, in chronically ill cases, it more efficient to supplement with the biologically active Thiamin Diphosphate a. There is nothing to be gained for supplementing with both, and Thiamin requires processing enzymatically and energy before it can be utilised. The name Riboflavin E , a.

Vitamin B2, derives from 'ribose' and 'flavin'. Riboflavin is the central component of the enzymatic cofactors FAD and FMN, and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. Vitamin B2 is required for the metabolism of fats, ketone bodies, carbohydrates and proteins. Flavin Mononucleotide FMN , a. Riboflavin-5'-Phosphate, is a biologically active, coenzyme form of B2.

It is a phosphorylated form of Riboflavin. It is a precursor to FAD, the other biologically active form. FMN is the active form of B2 found in specialised supplements. This energy intensive reaction utilises the enzyme Riboflavin kinase. FMN is a stronger oxidizing agent than NAD and is particularly useful because it can take part in both one and two electron transfers. It is the principal form in which riboflavin is found in cells and tissues.

It requires more energy to produce, but is more soluble than riboflavin. It is a combination of flavin and adenosine diphosphate. The reduced coenzyme FADH2 is an energy carrying molecule, and can be used as a substrate for oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. The primary sources of reduced FAD are the Krebs cycle and the beta oxidation reaction pathways. In the Krebs cycle, FAD forms part of the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme that oxidises succinate to fumarate, whereas in its beta oxidation role it is a coenzyme in the reaction of acyl CoA dehydrogenase.

Exposure to light destroys riboflavin. Excess riboflavin is excreted in the urine. When taken in large oral dosages, it may turn the urine bright yellow similar to excess beta carotene intake. Because of its yellow or yellow-orange colour, it is sometimes used as a food additive. With regards to supplementation, Flavin MonoNucleotide FMN is the preferred type of B2, as it is biologically active and a precursor for FAD production, the other biologically active form of the vitamin.

Nicotinic acid was first discovered in during studies of the tobacco drug nicotine, where niacin was produced by oxidising nicotine with nitric acid. The name niacin originates from a combination of the words 'nicotinic acid' and 'vitamin'.

Niacin deficiency can be caused by severe alcoholism. This toxicological effect is as a byproduct of niacin's conversion to nicotinamide. High dosages of niacin can also cause indigestion, liver toxicity fulminant hepatic failure - at over 2g per day , hyperglycemia exaccerbating the effects of diabetes , hyperuricemia may may exaccerbate the effects of gout.

Such effects can be mitigated by taking slow release formulas or simply lowering the dosage. Niacin has lipid modifying effects. In very high doses, e. However this effect has resulted in birth defects in laboratory animals, although the effects on humans are not known. Niacin is manufactured in the body from the amino acid tryptophan, although not in enough quantities for the body's requirements, and hence dietary sources are required.

Food sources of Niacin include liver, heat and kidney, chicken, beef, tuna, salmon, milk, eggs, avocados, dates, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, broccoli, carrots, sweet potatoes, asparagus, nuts, whole grains, legumes, saltbrush seeds, mushrooms and brewer's yeast also high in glutamate.

Breakfast cereals are usually supplemented with Niacin, but also contain sugar and are often not whole-grain. Niacin can be obtained from protein as stated above, but it is dependent on efficient protein digestion and amino acid conversion in the body. An alternative form of Niacin is Inositol Hexanicotinate, which is inositol Vitamin B8 containing six niacin or nicotinic acid B3 groups.

It is marketed as a form of 'flush-free' or 'no flush' niacin, although it does not appear to have the same potency as niacin in terms of its positive non-vitamin effects, e. Niacin is the precursor to nicotinamide. The two are identical in their vitamin functions i. Nicotinamide also has anti-inflammatory effects. High dosages of nicotinamide are however toxic to the liver over 3g per day. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, a.

It is the biologically active form of Vitamin B3. Coenzyme-1, is a reducing agent able to donate electrons. One could take the view that if one is going to supplement active B3, then one should take both forms in roughly equal quantities, to help maintain the 1: However, some may debate the usefulness of this and state that it doesn't make any difference, as the body will automatically correct it and convert them to the desired ratio electrically.

A typical dosage for an NADH supplement is 5mg, although I have tried 10mg and 20mg versions by different manufacturers. High dosages of NADH can sometimes lead to NADH side effects of insomnia, anxiety, fatigue, and overstimulation, so if you experience such problems more than usual if that is the case , then try reducing the dosage and try to feel the difference, to arrive at your optimum dosage - or have your practitioner use Applied Kinesiology testing on you to determine the dosage and frequency.

Each individual will give a different response. Enada NADH is sold only in 5mg form, as it is considered the most powerful, but I did not find it be that useful for me personally. Many months later I managed to acquire a number of packets of Natrol NADH and at that point in time it did very little at all!

There are only a few laboratories that manufacture NADH, selling it in their own range of products, with other most brands producing or packaging it under licence. Manufacturers do not always state what source of NADH, so just because you buy another brand doesn't mean you aren't still taking the same source of NADH i. I have tried to formulate a list of different sources of NADH in the list below. Those he is unsure about i. As Niacin and Nicotinamide both perform other roles in the body besides its vitamin function, it may be wise to ensure one has some dietary and perhaps supplementary intake of niacin either as niacin or inositol hexanicotinate and nicotinamide as well, albeit in low dosages certainly nowhere near the g mark where toxicity issues can result!

Pantothenic Acid, or Vitamin B5, is a prerequisite for forming Coenzyme-A CoA and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It is most commonly found as the Calcium salt of Pantothenic acid, Calcium Pantothenate, and also as the alcohol analog, provitamin panthenol. When ingested, it is quickly oxidised to pantothenate. Pantethine is the dimeric form of pantothenic acid.

It is a precursor to pantethine. It is an intermediate in the production of Coenzyme A by the body. Most B5 supplements are therefore in the form of Pantothenate a salt of Pantothenic acid.

CoA and ACP are extensively involved in carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. In addition to possessing the metabolic activity of pantothenic acid, Pantethine helps to support healthy serum lipid levels already within the normal range. Pantethine is also important for healthy cardiovascular function through its antioxidant activity. There are various forms of vitamin B6. Those naturally occurring in food include pyridoxine mainly from plant sources, e. Pyridoxine is shown above.

This is the most stable form which is most commonly used in B-vitamin supplements often as Pyridoxine Hydrochloride Pyridoxine HCl. There are additionally phosphate forms of the above vitamins. The phosphate form of pyridoxal is the metabolically active form of B6 used by the body in a variety of critical chemical reactions, and is known as Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate PP or PLP.

Pyridoxine is converted to PP in the liver. Absorption may be impaired in individuals with digestive problems. PP is the form of B6 which is generally most efficient to supplement with PP, as it is the active form, and pyridoxine serves no metabolic function until converted to PP. It is involved in the metabolism of histamine. It is also required in amino acid metabolism, including transamination a necessary step for gluconeogenesis - the enzmatic release of glucose from glycogen , deamination, decarboxylation, transsulphuration, selenoamino acid metabolism and for the conversion of tryptophan to Niacin B3.

P5P is the coenzyme required for proper function of the enzymes cystathionine synthase and cystathionase, which converted methionine into cysteine as part of homocysteine regulation and glutathione production. It also plays an indirect role in the biosynthesis of the Catecholamines neurotransmitters - adrenaline, noradrenaline and GABA through the process of methylation. P5P is also involed in hemoglobin synthesis and function, through the synthesis of heme, and to enhance the oxygen binding of hemoglobin.

It also plays a role in the absorption of amino acids in the digestive tract. Lastly, it is also involved in gene expression. The amino acid L-Lysine is closely tied to P5P functionally, in terms of P5P's main function in transamination reaction, as Lysine is part of the aminotransferase enzyme. A deficiency of L-Lysine may result in an inability to utilise any available P5P fully and thus a functional P5P deficiency.

An amino acid analysis should verify if Lysine levels are adequate or not. Supplemental Vitamin B6 as pyroxidine is believed to worsen cases of Candida albicans whereas the active form PP does not have this negative effect. There are various PP supplements, and PP is by far the most effective way of supplementing B6, as opposed to the form pyroxidine, in cases where levels are chronically low. The likelihood is however that the body will absorb whatever is thrown at it in small amounts at a time of course.

Otherwise the body will oxidise any excess as 4-pyridoxic acid PA which is the metabolite waste product excreted in the urine. It assists in the metabolism of carbohydrates CHO i. In these above functions, Biotin acts as an essential cofactor co-enzyme responsible for carbon dioxide CO2 group transfer in several intracellular carboxylase enzymes e.

Biotin is associated with four different enzymes in humans: Pyruvate carboxylase formation of oxaloacetate from pyruvate - Liver gluconeogenesis beta-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase - Leucine catabolism Propionyl-CoA carboxylase conversion of propionyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA - conversion of amino acids and propionate to glucose in the liver Acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA - lipid synthesis from Acetate www.

This is also explained by manufacturers as helping to restore the activity of ALA. One should therefore consider additional supplementation with Biotin over and above what is found in Lipoic Acid supplements, if one believes one is potentially deficient or prone to deficiency e. Biotin is generally produced by our body's gut bacteria, which under normal circumstances produce more than our daily requirements.

If one has a deficiency in probiotic but bacteria, then one may not produce enough biotin inside the GI tract. Dietary sources of biotin are very diverse and typically at very low concentrations.

The best natural sources of biotin in food sources include liver, legume, soybeans, Swiss chard, tomatoes, romaine lettuce, and carrots, almonds, eggs, onions, cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, goat's milk, cow's milk, raspberries, strawberries, halibut, oats, and walnuts. Sufficient Biotin is generally produced by one's intestinal bacteria - which could be adversely affected by antibiotics etc. Biotin is often found to be low in sufferers of CFS or related conditions.

Deficiency may result in a loss of appetite. This is usually not a result of inadequate biotin intake, but a lack of the enzymes that process biotin. Severe biotin deficiency can also be the result of a genetic mutation resulting in holocarboxylase synthase HCS deficiency, which is a lethal condition, remedied by very high daily dosages of biotin.

However, it is very rare, typically affecting 1 in , newborn infants. B6, B12 and Folic Acid. On the first occasion, there was a slight deficiency, corrected by supplementation with a high strength biotin supplement.

On the subsequent occasion, the deficiency was very marked, and I was having problems with my energy levels and breaking out of a cycle of heart palpitations. Upon taking a similar Biotin supplement, I felt a warm sensation, not unlike a full body orgasm. The body in this instance really needed it and was showing it.

I felt immediately better. Biotin deficienices should be corrected with biotin and probiotics supplementation. Inositol or cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,5-cyclohexanehexol , is a carbocyclic polyol that is used to form a number of secondary messengers inositides in eukaryotic cells, including inositol phosphates, phosphatidylinositol PI and phosphatidylinositol phosphate PIP lipids.

These inositides and the phosphate forms of Inositol discussed below are active in cell-to-cell communication, including the transmission of nerve impulses. Affected tissues include the brain, liver and the muscles. Inositol is an indirect source of glucose and glucoronic acid, which are essential for liver detoxification.

It is found in many food sources, especially cereals with a high bran content e. The most common naturally occurring form of inositol is myo-inositol or myoinositol. Inositol is synthesised by the body and so is no longer considered a vitamin, although the quantities that it is synthesised in may not be sufficient for requirements, and one may need to rely on dietary or supplemental sources to supplement that created within the body.

It is the principle store of the element Phosphorus P in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. As well as being a source of dietary Phosphorus, a vitamin promoting the immune system's natural NK-cells, and an antioxidant, it is also an excellent chelating agent. It readily chelates Calcium and Magnesium in it's acid form.

If taken in its salt form, i. Calcium-Magnesium Inositol Hexaphosphate, it is already combined with Calcium and Magnesium and will not chelate these out of the body. The salt form is therefore preferable to take as an oral supplement. IP6 is used for chelating excess iron from the body in cases of haemochromatosis - there being no natural mechanism for removing excess iron from the body besides menstruation in women.

IP6 is also one of the few chelating agents used for Uranium removal, although I am sure that other natural chelators work well also. IP6 is generally recommended to be taken on an empty stomach. It may be as well to ensure one is supplementing sufficient Calcium and Magnesium with meals also, and to ensure that one's Iron levels do not drop too much during the course of taking it, as this may result in various biochemical and cellular problems.

Of course, one would probably want to consume inositol in its basic form as well so that it can be converted into other inositides other than IP6.

The vitamin B9, Folic acid, shown above, is the synthetic form of the vitamin, found in many supplements. It is the non bio-active form, and must go through several conversion steps before it can be utilised by the body. High folate foods include black-eye beans, Brussels sprouts, beef and yeast extract, kale, spinach, granary bread, spring greens, broccoli, parsnips and chickpeas. Liver is also very high in folic acid, but also very high in vitamin A also.

Overcooking of course destroys folate, as well as other B-vitamins. To be utilised in the body, folate undergoes a series of conversion steps, from its biologically inactive form to a biologically active form. Additional is capitalisation used for emphasis. DHF is a biologically inactive form of Folate.

These are biologically active forms of Folate. In general terms, these different forms of active folate perform different biological functions, including methylation, purine DNA and RNA biosynthesis, and amino acid conversion.

The Methyl-B12 then goes on to methylate Homocysteine back into Methionine in presence of Methionine synthase enzyme. It acts as a donor of formyl groups in anabolism as a substrate in formyltransferase reactions. It is used in conjunction with Methyl-B12 to form MTR 5-MethylTetraHydroFolate-Homocysteine MethylTransferase , a human gene and type of transferase enzyme that transfers a methyl group from a donor to an acceptor in this case remethylating homocysteine to methionine. Similarly, a deficiency in vitamin B12 can also result in elevated Homocysteine levels and appear similar to a functional folate deficiency even though the body had enough 5-MTHF.

Please see the Homocysteine Reconversion section below for more information. A high level and incomplete view of the Folate cycle can be seen below in an article on Nature. It is a synthetic, enantiopure S-form as opposed to L-form drug that is readily converted into Tetrahydrofolate THF and thus is easily metabolised into 5-MTHF by the body, even though it is not a natural precursor to THF that is created in the body.

The Sodium or Calcium salt form is Folinate. Folinic acid and folinate are used in cancer chemotherapy.

Folinic acid is more stable to oxidation than folic acid and requires less steps to bioassimilation, and can be taken and utlised whilst suppressing the body's natural processes for converting folate to THF.

The problem of Folic acid in cancer treatment is described below. Cancer cells are known to replicate at a very high rate. One of the goals of cancer treatment in theory is therefore to slow down this rate of replication of the cancer cells whilst simultaneously fighting the cancer cells and also promoting as much normal cellular activity in healthy cells as possible.

In reality, chemotherapy has a number of negative effects on healthy cell function and the body as a whole, as it is a form of toxification poisoning and source of potentially high oxidative stress. Excess folate is thought to promote tumor initiation in cancer patients once one has cancer - through promoting cell division generally , but is also thought to decrease the likelihood of cancer occurring in the first place in non-cancer patients, i.

Of course, folate deficiency in non-cancer patients may result in DNA damage and therefore perhaps an increased chance of developing cancer. Thus, taking Methotrexate can drastically lower 5-MTHF levels in the body, particularly in the bone marrow and gastrointestinal mucosa cells, and thus inhibit the rapid cell replication of cancer cells that occurs with THF.

Thus the folate naturally present in a person's diet can be excluded from the equation, or at least lowered to a significant degree, such that only a small amount of 5-MTHF will be produced from it. This is why it is the form of B9 of choice for chemotherapy patients, as 5-MTHF might be more readily oxidised prior to utilisation.

Thus in the presence of DHFR inhibition i. Whilst some 5-MTHF is still produced from the patient's food, the amounts produced via this route are very low relative to the amount of Folinic acid or Folinate taken supplementally, which can be tightly controlled, to meet the person's B9 requirements without having an adverse effect on tumor growth. Of course, too much Methotrexate may result in too much of the dietary folate being suppressed, potentially resulting in folate deficiency, and too much Folinic acid can cancel out the effects of the drug methotrexate and result in encourage tumor cell replication, thus reducing the effectiveness of the chemotherapy - so one would have all the harmful effects of chemotherapy without any of the benefits.

Folinic acid is also used synergistically in combination with the colon cancer chemotherapy agent 5-fluorouracil to inhibit the thymidylate synthase enzyme and may enhance its toxicity. There are no notable side effects of Folinic Acid for cancer or non-cancer patients. It may be beneficial for anyone and is arguably a better form of B9 than Folic acid supplements. A given individual may have no polymorphisms, or one or more polymorphisms.

The polymorphisms themselves vary in severity. These individuals do not adequately convert enough of the folate they consume from dietary or even Folic acid and Folinic acid supplements into the active form of folate, 5-MTHF, that is used by the body, and unless they supplement 5-MTHF, will likely develop mildly elevated homocysteine levels which has adverse health effects.

This is not to say that they may not develop worse 5-MTHF deficiency for dietary reasons not consuming enough folate or because of digestive malabsorption issues associated with many environmental illnesses. Unfortunately Folic acid is heavily marketed by pharmaceutical companies and supermarkets as being a great option for pregnant mothers, but 1 in 4 women may not gain as much benefit from it as they might. There are many conversion steps involved and an active form of Folate may be in any case a better option.

One can but speculate to what extent this condition results in birth defects or health problems and conditions amongst newborns in the short or long term i.

If one is going to supplement Folate then one should probably take a supplement that at least contains the 5-MTHF form of folate. In addition, intestinal absorption of folate may be impaired. Examples of good folate supplements include: Regarding regular Folic acid supplements, I have personally found that in , supplementation with Folic Acid supplements made me feel considerably better for a time, even euphoric at the time of taking them. However, in , I was suggested a very high strength Folic Acid supplement 20, mcg , which another doctor muscle tested on me and said that it did nothing.

I had been taking this 20,mcg Folic Acid supplement several times a day to try to correct this, but it did not have much effect. The 5-MTHF supplement also muscle tested positively on me. I would therefore not really recommend regular Folic Acid as a supplement. Folate does become toxic to the liver if taken at high dosages for long periods, but as it is water-soluble, its levels never really build up too much. But it is something to be aware of, and elevated levels may be identified in blood serum tests.

Vitamin B12 helps to protects nerve tissue and brain cells. As described below, it is a cofactor of methionine synthase, an essential step in methylation and homocysteine regulation , the process behind the creation of essential neurotransmitters. Methylcobalamin also protects the eye function against toxicity caused by excess glutamate. It is the most structurally complex vitamin and is the main dietary source of the mineral Cobalt.

It is the B-vitamin most commonly low in vegans and vegetarians, whose food is in general quite low in Vitamin B12, with specific exceptions. Vegetarians and vegans may elect to supplement B12 or to eat a food source rich in B This could be an algae like Spirulina or a yeast extract product like Marmite but which is also high in glutamate.

One must take into account that algae has a cold energetic property. Marmite was originally created because the brewing industry had so much excess yeast, it was literally throwing it away. It was a waste product. Opportunistic entrepreneurs created a product to make use of the cheap source of yeast. They are considered to be the most readily absorbed forms of Vitamin B Methyl-B12 is the form directly used in methylation see the Folic Acid section above and the Homocysteine Reconversion section below for more information.

It forms part of the Krebs cycle for the production of energy mitochondrial function. It is the form of vitamin B12 that is naturally occurring in food sources of B It is actually the precursor to Methyl-B12 and Adenosyl-B12, and is converted in the liver to these two active forms.

It is known to be a more potent inhibitor of Nitric Oxide production than the two final forms of active B12, as discussed on the Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite page.

Cyanocobalamin Cyano-B12 is a synthetic form of B12 which does not occur in nature. It is the least readily absorbable form, but is the most common form sold in supplement form as it is more stable in air. Cyanocobalamin is not the active form of B In order for the body to use this form of B12 it must enzymatically remove the cyanide portion of this molecule, releasing it in the form of thiocyanate which can be safely excreted.

The remaining cobalamin portion must then be converted into methylcobalamin or adenosylcobalamin via hydroxocobalamin , in order for it to perform useful biological work.

Because some people lack or do not have enough of the proper enzyme to actively detoxify and convert cyanocobalamin, or are overwhelmed by the ingestion of too much cyanide which can inhibit Cyano-B12 conversion , it can accumulate in the body resulting in toxicity.

Cobalamin metabolism and its clinical aspects. Both Methylcobalamin and Cyanocobalamin are pink in colour. Hydoxo-B12 is a good form to take for lowering oxidative stress due to excessive NO and Peroxynitrite. B12 supplements are probably best taken sublingually under the tongue. Methylcobalamin intra-muscular IM injections are not uncommonly used with CFS, ME and FMS patients, and can easily be performed oneself when shown how by a qualified nurse, a supply of sterile syringes and Methyl-B12 ampoules being provided to the patient.

A typical dosage might be 20mg 20,mcg i. Aside from direct food sources, there are a number of products on the market that contain naturally occurring or produced forms of B-vitamins. Some of these as listed below. Of course, it is a matter of debate as to whether natural i.

The B vitamins are present in RDA type dosages, but it appears to be at least as effective if not more effective than other B vitamin supplements where the vitamins are present in HUGE dosages. This is probably on account of their natural and unaltered molecular form rendering them more readily utilised by cells. It does appear to be rather high in Glutamate however having that Glutamate type taste.

The product is also marketed by Quantum Nutrition Labs. This contains a wide variety of vitamins and minerals taken from raw food sources. It comes in a capsule form. Special formulations are made for both men and women, although for CFS sufferers! I have tried this and is reasonable happy with the results. It does however contain brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and so so may slightly high in glutamate. It contains aloe vera juice, cultured seaweeds, agave nectar and ginkgo biloba.

It is perhaps a little high in carbohydrate, but one is not meant to drink more than 1 fluid ounce per day in any case. It may be slightly high in glumate on account of the cultivated seaweed content, but equally it contains a large number of other amino acids, so it should not be a problem. There are other similar products on the market, but this is a particularly good example.

It contains a variety of fruit, cereal grass, vegetable and herb extracts. Vitamin B12 does not naturally occur in Marmite or brewer's yeast in general, and is added in synthetic form? The Australian version unlike the European version contains added refined sugar so is to be avoided.

However Marmite and other yeast extract products are very high in Glutamate which is discussed on the Food Intolerance page. Please see the Digestion page for further information. In many patients of CFS or other conditions, the uptake of B-vitamins is extremely poor, for bio-chemical reasons, and the only mechanism remaining for absorption of certain B-vitamins may be diffusion, which is highly inefficient.

For that reason, high strength B-vitamin supplements are often used. Source Naturals Coenzymated B Vital Nutrients P5P 50mg.

Thorne Research Biotin-8 mcg or 8mg. Bio Tech Pharmacal's Folic Acid. Nutri Ltd Methyl Max e. Jarrow Formulas Methyl B e. Jarrow Formulas Methyl B The above dosages are not being necessarily recommended but are for illustrative purposes only.

It is best to determine the dosages using Applied Kinesiology. You could also experiment yourself with the dosages and try different forms and types of supplements, within sensible limits at your own risk of course!

In certain cases, a patient may greatly benefit from weekly injections of Vitamin B12 for example, where oral supplementation is not necessarily resulting in higher B12 levels in the blood and tissues. B12 injections are normally in the form of mcg cyanocobalamin injections, either intra muscular IM or intra venous IV.

Myer's Cocktail is an IV or Intra Muscular injection containing a variety of nutritional elements and vitamins, including Magnesium typically sulphate or chloride , Calcium Gluconate, and Vitamins C, B12 hydroxycobalamin , B6 pyridoxine , B5 dexpanthenol , and B complex Glutathione can be optionally included. The higher dosages are administered over a longer period of time: Below is a web site summarising the RDAs of B vitamins for healthy people of a variety of ages, and also therapeutic doses.

Some of the side effects of deficiencies and too high levels of various B-vitamins are summarised. It is best to purchase products from reputable brands that you know are of very high quality. Spirulina, Chlorella and Quality Whey: These high protein 'supplements' may help patients to gain more muscle strength and to increase the amount of resistance training they can do, which they never thought possible.

They are also alkalising, as opposed to most protein sources, especially meat sources, that tend to be acidifying on the body, lowering its pH. The plant-based sources discussed below are rich in nutrients and chlorophyll. Not all forms of dietary protein are acidifying of course, and sprouted beans and seeds are mostly alkaline in their effect on the body, as opposed to the non-sprouted forms of the respective nuts and seeds. If you are not vegan, then eating eggs regularly may help the body to rebuild itself.

I have personal experience of people who go to a physiotherapist for many years, without any progress, but start taking a protein supplement such as whey protein or spirulina, and are back on heavy weights again in a matter of weeks.

However, progress clearly is dependent on the individual's exact condition, and this was certainly not the case a few years later during my recovery process. It may be wise to kinesiologically test which protein source agrees best with you. It is best to have a good consultant to kinesiologically test protein supplements on the patient to ascertain which can be readily assimilated as assimilation is the key issue here. Such protein supplements, and taking additional digestive enzymes and betaine HCl may assist in some conversion of specific amino acids, they are unlikely to completely relieve amino acid conversion issues that a person may have.

Clearly the extent of physical capability varies dramatically between sufferers of CFS and related conditions, and some are barely able to walk, whereas others are active in weight training and cardio-vascular exercise. Much of this relates to the person's general energy qi levels, and also his or her ability to effectively convert and synthesize all the different amino acids properly. Amino acid conversion dysfunction is rarely exactly the same in one person as in another person, and is often highly complex.

It is also the by-product of cheese or casein manufacture. Some harshly refer to it as a waste. It has a number of health benefits for those who are not sensitive to dairy. Whey has the highest known biological value BV of any known protein BV is a measure of how efficiently a substance can be digested and absorbed through the villi of the small intestine into the blood stream, maintaining its original form.

Both contain semi-digested whey and are enhanced with a wide variety of nutrients. In terms of taste, I find UltraMeal Whey to be by far the tastiest, with the other variants being more 'functional'. By weight, WheyCool is the best value for money. The cheapest non-denatured and non-growth hormone whey product that I have found is Natural Factors' Whey Factors.

Non-denatured whey protein has the advantage of preventing excessive build up of Peroxynitrite, a harmful oxidising agent that can cause excessive oxidative stress and also impede mitochondrial and cardiac function indirectly , as discussed on the Heart Insufficiency page. They also contain many of the essential raw materials for producing Glutathione GSH , an essential internally produced antioxidant that is also strongly anti-viral and is used in detoxification by the body.

Non-denatured whey protein also tends to contain a high immunoglobulin count depending on the exact product in question , and so are beneficial for the immune system on a number of counts. The amino acid rich content is also useful in detoxification.

Various algae types, quality whey supplements, and also amino acid supplements particularly branched chain amino acids may also help when detoxing, as heavy metals and other toxins may attach themselves to them and create a way of carrying them out of the body when it comes to their elimination.

According to Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM , dairy foods, raw cold energy foods, and foods contained refined sugar or brown sugar tend to have a detrimental effect on individuals with a weak spleen meridian. To what extent this concerns raw dairy, non-denatured dairy or just dairy in general is not fully certain.

In addition, dairy products, particularly milk and cheese yoghurt less so is detrimental to patients who suffer from excessive Damp energy.

Ensure benefits muscle mass