Strategies of Diving Mammals

Meanings of biological terminology

Aquatic respiration
Transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, the various forms of malaria result in more deaths worldwide than any other parasitic disease. A member of the major division Monotremata egg-laying mammals of Class Mammalia, the other two being eutherian mammals and marsupials. In some insects ostia may also occur at the rear end of the dorsal vessel, though in general only the anterior end is open. In terrestrial mammals, pressure such as that experienced whilst diving causes the bronchiole to collapse, trapping nitrogen within the bulbous end of the alveoli. The mid-layer of a leaf between the upper and lower epidermises; portion of a leaf where photosynthesis occurs.

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Comparative Animal Respiration

Balanced moments and centre of mass Planetary orbiting and gravitational forces Moments — Remember it! Moments — Test it! Radioactive Substances — Test it! What further explanations of criminal behaviour are there? What is the Impact of Crime and Deviance on Society? Text Structure Exam Wisdom Remember it! Understanding Texts Theme What is Non-fiction? How to Structure Your Essay Remember it!

Dynamic Ecosystems — Conservation Dynamic Ecosystems: Succession Dynamic Ecosystems — Remember it! The Variety of Living Organisms Organism variation: Classifying Organisms Classifying Organisms: Genetic Diversity Genetic diversity — Remember it! Multicellular Organisms Multicellular organisms — Remember it! The Big Questions France, Pricing Using the Marketing Mix: Place Remember it, Test it!

Quality Developing Effective Operations: Customer Service Remember it, Test it! Communication Developing an Effective Workforce: Recruitment and Selection Developing an Effective Workforce: Training Developing and Retaining an Effective Workforce: Aerobic respiration required oxygen as well as glucose and produces carbon dioxide and energy. Cells respire anaerobically in the body during exercise because not enough oxygen can reach the cells fast enough. During a work up an athlete respires both aerobically and anaerobically.

Explain why a change of heart rate is important during exercise. Terry is training for a marathon. He runs every day to build up his muscles. Energy is continuously being made by cells in the body. The birds skin is also covered in layers of feathers, to keep them warm but the feather also make the bird extremely light so it can fly without trouble. All birds have wings and most can fly over very long distance, some species of bird migrates thousands of mile every year, while others can only fly a few feet.

The penguin is one of the only birds in the world that cannot fly as their wings are too small to lift their body. There are around 10, species of bird found worldwide, although studies suggest that many more species have become extinct.

The bee hummingbird is the smallest species of bird in the world growing to around 5cm, with the ostrich being the largest species of bird and growing to nearly 3m tall.

Blowhole The nostrils of a whale are on the top of their head, and can be pair or singular. Breaching When an animals leaps out of the water and falls back in with a splash. Breaching is often a behaviour displayed by large whales. Brood Parasite When an animal birds are common tricks another species into raising it's young.

Browsing Feeding on the leaves that are on trees, bushes and shrubs higher up rather than eating the grass and plants on the ground. Calcareous Calcareous calcium structures are shells, bones and exoskeletons that are created by many animals to provide both support and protection. Camouflage Colours or patterns are often displayed on an animal to help it to blend into it's surroundings.

Animals use camouflage to both hide and protect themselves from approaching predators but also to sure that they are not spotted by unsuspecting prey. Canine Tooth Some mammals have canine teeth which are strong and sharply pointed teeth.

Canine teeth are generally found at the front of the jaw and are used for piercing and biting prey. Carnassial Tooth Carnivorous mammals have a carnassial tooth which is a blade-like tooth that is designed to slice through flesh. Carnivore A carnivore is an animal that only eats other animals in order to ensure its own survival. Carnivorous animals have a complex digestive system that has adapted to breaking large amounts of meat, and therefore do not need to feed as often as herbivorous and omnivorous animals.

Lions, crocodiles and sharks are all good example of animals that are carnivores. Cartilage Cartilage is a rubbery substance that helps to form part of the skeleton in vertebrates. Cellulose Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate found in plants that many animals find difficult to break down. Herbivorous grazing animals, are able to digest it with the help of micro-organisms. Chelicera Chelicerae are the first pairs of appendages of the front of an arachnids body.

Some arachnids have pincers on the end and some spiders can inject venom through them. Chordate An animal belong to the phylum Chordata, which includes all vertebrates. Chrysalis A hard and shiny case that protect insect pupa, that is often found attached to plants or buried in the soil. Circulatory System An animals circulatory system involves the animals heart, blood vessels and blood which flows around the animals body, transporting nutrients to cells that need them and removing waste products from others.

The blood is powered by the animals heart which beats on average around times a minute this obviously depends on the animal though. Class A level of classifying animals in a phylum. Classes are then sub-divided into further groups known as orders.

Cloven-hoofed Animals such as deer and antelope have hooves that look like they are split in two. Cocoon A nest made by insects of woven silk, often to protect eggs or pupae. Cold Blooded Having a body temperate that is reliant on it's surroundings. Colony A group of animals from the same species, that spend their lives together and often have individual tasks that help with the overall survival of the colony.

Common Name The most widely used name for this species of animal. Compound Eye An eye that is divided up into separate compartments, each with its own set of lenses. Compound eyes are most commonly found in arthropods and can contain from a few to thousands of lenses. Conservation Status The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future.

Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species: Scientifically, animals come into 9 different categories which are least concern, near threatened, conservation dependent, threatened, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, extinct in the wild and extinct. A-Z Animals groups the animals into just four different categories which are least concern covering the categories least concern, near threatened and conservation dependent , threatened covering the categories threatened and vulnerable , endangered covering the categories endangered, critically endangered and extinct in the wild and extinct.

Least Concern is a category assigned to extant species which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. Many common species are assigned to the least concern category but the species has to have been evaluated to be classified in the least concern category.

Near Threatened is a conservation status assigned to species that may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. As such it is important to re-evaluate Near Threatened species often or at appropriate intervals. Conservation Dependent is a category assigned to extant species that rely on conservation efforts to prevent them from being threatened from extinction.

Threatened species are any species of living organism which are vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The World Conservation Union IUCN is the main authority on threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories: Vulnerable species are species which are likely to become endangered unless the circumstances threatening their survival and reproduction improve.

Endangered species are a population of organisms which are at risk of becoming extinct because they are either few in numbers, or threatened by environmental changes or changes in the behaviours of their predators.

Many nations have laws offering protection to conservation reliant species: Only a few of the many species at risk of extinction actually make it to the lists and obtain legal protection.

Many more species become extinct, or potentially will become extinct, without gaining public notice. Critically Endangered species are organisms that are of an extremely high risk of becoming extinct in the wild or completely extinct in the immediate future. Extinct in the Wild is a conservation status assigned to species where the only known living members are being kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside it's historic and natural range.

Extinct species no longer exist anywhere on Earth. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species.

Cryptic Colouration An animal uses certain colours and markings in order to make itself invisible in its surroundings. Delayed Implantation In some mammals, there can be a delay between when the egg is fertilised and when the embryo begins to develop.

Deposit Feeder An animal that feeds on small particles of organic matter that have drifted down to and settle on the bottom. Detritivore An animals that feeds on dead plant and animal matter. Distinctive Features Characteristics unique to the animal [Top].

Diurnal If an animal is diurnal it means that the animal tends to sleep during the dark, night hours and wakes up to hunt when the sun rises in the morning. Humans, bears and horses are considered to be diurnal animals. Domesticated An animal that lives with humans or is looked after by them.

Dorsal Fin Large fin on the back of marine animals such as fish, sharks, whales and dolphins. Echinoderm Echinoderms are spiny-skinned invertebrates that are found on the ocean floor. Echinoderms are armoured animals that have a hard internal skeleton endoskeleton made up of plates and spines. Echinoderms are slow-moving creatures that have a water-vascular system which pumps water through the body.

Echinoderms also have small jaws that are supported by the water-vascular system and tube feet which they use to attach to objects for protection, as well as to obtain food. Echinoderms generally have radial symmetry and most can regenerate lost limbs. Echolocation A way of sensing nearby objects by using pulse of high-frequency sound.

Ecological Niche The term niche is used to describe an animals specific function or purpose within a certain habitat. Most species of animal play an integral part in keeping their surrounding ecosystem running, whether it be the spreading of seeds or predatory animals that hunt smaller species of animal.

Ecosystem The term ecosystem is used to describe the working together of different species of animal within a particular habitat, a good example of this being the basic food chain.

Ectoparasite An animal that lives on the surface of another animal's body, generally by sucking it's blood. Endoparasite An animal that lives inside another animal's body, both eat the tissues and food. Endoskeleton An internal skeleton that supports an animal's body and is generally made of bone. Environment The term environment is used to describe the conditions surrounding a certain organism as a whole.

This includes everything from the social structure of life contained within that environment from animals to plants, but also is a method of describing how all the different organisms in one area interact with each other.

The are numerous different environments throughout the world including desert environments, jungle environments and mountainous environments. The term environment basically refers to all living and non-living things in the world or a particular region.

Estimated Population Size How many of a particular species are thought to exist at this time. Evolution Evolution is the process by which different species of animals evolve, generally in accordance with natural selection and to make life more successful for the species. For example, certain species of moth have known to completely change colour in just a few generations because of pollution, and the horse we know today evolved from having many toes, to just having a single toe today.

Exoskeleton An external skeleton that supports and protects the animal's body. External Fertilisation Fertilisation that occurs outside of the womb, normally in water.

Family A level of classifying animals within an order. Orders are broken down in families and families are broken down further into smaller groups called genus. Favourite Food The preferred food of an animal. For example, Penguins may eat Crab or Squid, but typically prefer to eat Fish - this may because they are easier to catch, eat or digest.

Femur The femur is the thigh bone in all vertebrates that have four limbs including elephants, lions and humans. Feral A feral animal is an animal that was brought up domestically but has then begun to live life in the wild. Fertilisation The meeting of a female animal's egg cell and a male animal's sperm, which creates a cell able of developing into a new animal. Filter Feeder An animal that feeds by extracting small particles of food out of the water. Fish Fish are cold blooded vertebrates that live in the waters of rivers, lakes and oceans worldwide.

Fish have scales covering their skin and usually an oily layer on the surface of the fishes skin, which helps to regulate the body of temperature of the fish. Fish have gills on the sides of their heads which allows the fish to breath underwater, due to their complex respiratory breathing system. There thought to be around 32, different species of fish found in freshwater and saltwater sources alike, with over 1, of these now considered to be critically endangered.

Fish are a stable food source for many species of mammals, birds and reptiles around the world. Flight Feathers The wings and tail feather of a bird that are used in flight. Flipper A flat paddle-shaped limb that many aquatic mammals have. Fluke Many whales and their relatives have a rubbery tail flipper which is known as a fluke. Food Chain An animal food chain is the sequence of who eats whom within an ecosystem in order for each animal to obtain nutrition.

A food chain starts with the primary energy source, which is usually the sun and the food chain is then connected by a series of organisms that eat each other, in turn. The food chain starts with the sun and is then followed by the primary producers, then the primary consumer, then the secondary consumer, followed by the tertiary consumer and finishing with the quaternary consumer which is generally an animal that is eaten by nothing else and is therefore the end of the food chain.

Food chains are never the same as each ecosystem contains different organisms within it. If one part of the food chain is missing then there will be high population levels in the links before the missing part of the food chain, as nothing is eating them, and there will also be lower population levels in the links after the missing part in the food chain, as those animals have nothing to eat. The food chain is then said to be out of balance, so it is crucial for food chains to remain unaltered in order for balance within the animal kingdom to remain.

Primary Producer Primary producers are those organisms that require nothing but the natural resources of the Earth in order to thrive and survive. Primary producers tend to be plants that are photosynthetic and these plants use the energy provided by sunlight in order to make their own food using a process called photosynthesis.

Other primary consumers include bacteria that make their own food using chemicals that are produced in natural vents in the ocean. Primary producers are also known as autotrophs and are vital to the survival of the animals that follow in the next stages of the food chain. Primary Consumer The primary consumers are the next stage in the food chain behind the sun and the primary producers. The primary consumers are the herbivorous animals of the world and consume the primary producers autotrophs in order to gain their nutrition.

For example, an insect primary consumer will eat the seeds and sprouts that are provided by grass primary producer. Primary consumers are also known as heterotrophs. Secondary Consumer The secondary consumers link in with the food chain as they are the omnivorous animals that eat the primary consumers and the secondary consumers will occasionally eat the primary producers in order to supplement their diet.

For example, a rat secondary consumer will eat an insect primary consumer that has gained its nutrition from eating the grass primary producer.

Secondary consumers are also known as heterotrophs. Tertiary Consumer The secondary consumers are followed by the tertiary consumers, the tertiary consumers tend to be the smaller carnivores of the animal kingdom.

The tertiary consumers only eat meat and therefore really on the consistency of the secondary consumer populations in order to continue to thrive as a species. For example, a snake tertiary consumer will eat a rat secondary consumer that has gained its nutrition from eating an insect primary consumer , and the insect has gained its nutrition from eating the grass primary producer.

Tertiary consumers are also known as heterotrophs. Quaternary Consumer The final part to the food chain are the quaternary consumers, and these are the animals that tend to be large carnivores and dominant predators within their natural environment. Quaternary consumers generally have few, if any, natural predators at all and this tends to be where the food chain ends. For example, an eagle quaternary consumer will eat a snake tertiary consumer , that has eaten a rat secondary consumer , that has eaten an insect primary consumer , that has eaten the grass primary producer that has used the energy from the sun in order to make food.

Food Web The interlinking of a collection of food chains from one habitat. Genus A level of classifying animals within a family. Families are divided into sub-groups called genus which generally contain one or two animal species.

Gestation Period The gestation period is the time from conception to birth in which a mammal embryo is developing. The gestation period is different for almost every species of animal, for example, the gestation period for a human embryo is roughly 9 months but the gestation period for a kangaroo embryo is only around 30 days.

Gill An external organ used by aquatic animals such as fish, to extract oxygen out of the water. Group Behaviour How an animal behaves when in a group. For example, Elephants live together in herds, whereas a Jaguar is a solitary animal which lives on its own.

Habitat The term habitat is used to describe a specific area where a particular animal lives, within an environment. Many animals have adapted to requiring specific conditions which can only be found in their natural habitat such as those animals that live in the polar regions that have longer, thicker body fur to keep them warm. Herbivore A herbivore is an animal that only eats plant material, algae and bacteria in order to gain its nutrition.

Those animals that are herbivorous have adapted to digest plant material specifically, such as elephants, donkeys and rabbits. Hermaphrodite An animal that has both male and female reproductive organs so that it is able to self-fertilize. Hibernation When an animal hibernates, it isn't as simple as the animal just sleeping for a long time.

When an animal sleeps, the animals brain is still active so the animal is able to move around in their sleep and can also wake up quickly. When an animal hibernates, the animals heart rate slows down, the animals body temperature drops as it is exposed to cold surroundings and the animals breathing slows down meaning that the animal takes longer than usual to wake up. The animal spends the months before it hibernates eating lots of food to make sure its body has enough energy to survive the winter.

Some animals are in hibernation for the duration of the winter meaning they don't wake up at all, others wake up every few weeks to have a snack and walk about before going back into hibernation. Home Range The area that an animal or group of animals lives in. Horn A hard, pointed growth on the head of some mammals. Incisor Tooth A flat tooth at the front of a mammal's jaw that is used for gnawing and slicing food. Incubation Period The incubation period is the time from when an animal egg is laid to when it hatches.

The term incubation period is used to refer to all egg laying mammals like fish, birds and reptiles but also to the platypus and the echidna which are the only egg laying mammals on earth.

The incubation period varies between animal species from the incubation period of a penguin egg which is around 60 days to the incubation period of the an iguana egg which is between three and four months. Insect Insects are invertebrate arthropods, which means that the insects body is made up of sections of shell rather than bones.

There are more than 1 million described species of insect found worldwide, but estimates suggest there to be around 30 million different species of insect still left to identify. Insects are found in every habitat around the world from the deserts, to the jungles and in the mountains. Some species of insect also live in or around water such as the mosquito and the dragonfly. Insects generally have a lifespan that is less than a year, although some types of insects such as beetles, have been known to live for more than a few years.

Internal Fertilisation Fertilisation that occurs inside the body of the female. Introduced Species A species that has been accidentally or purposefully been introduced, by humans, into an eco-system where it is not found naturally. Keel An enlargement of the breastbone in birds, that secures the muscles during flight.

Keratin A strong and resilient structural protein that is found in an animals hair, nails and horn. Kingdom A level of classifying all living things on earth, as similar species are broken into 5 groups including plants, animals and fungi.

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