Respiratory System


Digestive System
It is formed by 9 supportive cartilages, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and a mucous membrane lining. Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology. During urination, the urine is passed from the bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. Kidney infection pyelonephritis usually is caused from bacteria that have spread from the bladder from a UTI urinary tract infection , poor hygiene, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, catheter, cystoscope exam, surgery, kidney stones, or prostate enlargement. Renal acidosis may occur as part of general renal failure or as a specific disease of the renal tubules, one of whose functions is to convert the slightly alkaline glomerular filtrate into the usually acidic urine. The diet must either be free of protein or contain small amounts of high-quality protein to lessen tissue breakdown. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.

Male Incontinence Pictures: Treat and Manage the Condition

Excretory system

A person's sex is determined by what reproductive system the person has, but it isn't always so simple.

Some humans are born with parts of both male and female reproductive systems or incomplete reproductive organs of one sex or the other. Those with both male and female reproductive parts are considered intersex. Sometimes children are labeled as male or female, depending on how complete or functional one sexual reproductive system is over the other. Then, the other organs are removed.

Today, many parents are opting to leave both sets of reproductive organs intact with the intent of letting the child decide to keep or remove the various parts when they are older. A baby is born atypical genitalia in one in about 1, to 2, births, according to Intersex Society of North America. Females that are born without all of their reproductive system are labeled as having Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser Syndrome.

Many parts of the male and female reproductive systems can be affected by cancer. In females, cancer can attack the uterus, ovaries, breast and cervix, among other organs, according to the American Cancer Society.

Many experts have seen what they refer to as the "Angelina Jolie" effect, where women are taking proactive measures by having breasts and internal reproductive organs removed if they have a family history of cancer before there are signs of the disease.

Shana Wingo, who specializes on gynecologic oncology at Arizona Oncology. Ovarian cancer tends to have a poorer outcome than other gynecological cancers, Ross noted, because it is not typically diagnosed until it has progressed significantly.

Tests to detect ovarian cancer, as well as cancer of the fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer are currently being studied, according to the National Cancer Institute. There are two tests used to screen for cervical cancer. The Pap test screens for cellular changes in the cervix called cytology, while the genital human papillomavirus HPV test identifies the presence of infection with high-risk HPV, the strains that are linked to cervical cancer, according to Dr.

A recent study published by Cancer Cytopathology, found that HPV-only screening misses more cervical cancer in women than Pap-only or co-testing, based on approximately 8. There is approximately a three-fold improvement in the cancer detection rate of co-testing compared to HPV only. Current guidelines recommend that women first start getting the Pap test alone when they turn 21 and repeat every three years if the test is normal until age A Pap-plus-HPV test, or co-testing, is recommended for women ages 30 to 65, and if both are negative repeated every five years, regardless of whether they have received HPV vaccination.

While genital HPV is typically associated with females, it is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The majority of sexually active people in the United States — male and female — will have HPV at some time in their lives, but most will not experience any symptoms.

In a small portion of women, it can result in cervical cancer and genital warts; in men, it can cause penile and anal cancer and genital warts, according to the NIH. Both genders can develop sexually transmitted diseases , including genital herpes, gonorrhea and syphilis, according to the National Institutes of Health NIH. For females, severe menstrual cramping , or dysmenorrheal, is the most common disease of the reproductive system occurs with a woman's monthly menstrual period, according to Dr.

Diagnosis is made by the patient's medical history and a pelvic exam. The best treatment includes medications that block the effects of prostaglandins and include ibuprofen and naproxen. The birth control pill also works well in treating dysmenorrhea by decreasing the blood flow, Ross noted.

Another common disorder of the female reproductive system is a vaginal yeast infection , which is caused by a yeast fungus in the vagina. Most can be successfully treated with over-the-counter medications, according to WebMD. Endometriosis is a condition where that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — ends up outside of uterus, most commonly in the ovaries, bowel or the tissue lining your pelvis.

The endometrial tissue becomes trapped, causing pain, according to the Mayo Clinic. Pelvic inflammatory disease can involve an infection of any of the female reproductive organs, including the uterus and ovaries. Sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, are typical causes of pelvic inflammatory disease, according to the NIH. The choroid plexuses contain many capillaries lined with epithelial tissue that filters blood plasma and allows the filtered fluid to enter the space around the brain.

Newly created CSF flows through the inside of the brain in hollow spaces called ventricles and through a small cavity in the middle of the spinal cord called the central canal. CSF also flows through the subarachnoid space around the outside of the brain and spinal cord. CSF is constantly produced at the choroid plexuses and is reabsorbed into the bloodstream at structures called arachnoid villi.

What are known as the special senses—vision, taste, smell, hearing, and balance—are all detected by specialized organs such as the eyes , taste buds , and olfactory epithelium.

Sensory receptors for the general senses like touch, temperature, and pain are found throughout most of the body. All of the sensory receptors of the body are connected to afferent neurons that carry their sensory information to the CNS to be processed and integrated.

Did you know that DNA testing can help you discover your genetic risk of acquiring certain health conditions that affect the organs of our nervous system? The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system, or CNS. The CNS acts as the control center of the body by providing its processing, memory, and regulation systems. The CNS is also responsible for the higher functions of the nervous system such as language, creativity, expression, emotions, and personality.

The brain is the seat of consciousness and determines who we are as individuals. The peripheral nervous system PNS includes all of the parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. These parts include all of the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia, and sensory receptors. The SNS is the only consciously controlled part of the PNS and is responsible for stimulating skeletal muscles in the body.

The ANS controls subconscious effectors such as visceral muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and glandular tissue. There are 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system in the body: The enteric nervous system ENS is the division of the ANS that is responsible for regulating digestion and the function of the digestive organs.

The ENS receives signals from the central nervous system through both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to help regulate its functions. Neurons function through the generation and propagation of electrochemical signals known as action potentials APs. An AP is created by the movement of sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of neurons. See Water and Electrolytes. A synapse is the junction between a neuron and another cell. Synapses may form between 2 neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell.

There are two types of synapses found in the body: The axons of many neurons are covered by a coating of insulation known as myelin to increase the speed of nerve conduction throughout the body. Myelin is formed by 2 types of glial cells: In both cases, the glial cells wrap their plasma membrane around the axon many times to form a thick covering of lipids.

The development of these myelin sheaths is known as myelination. Myelination speeds up the movement of APs in the axon by reducing the number of APs that must form for a signal to reach the end of an axon. The myelination process begins speeding up nerve conduction in fetal development and continues into early adulthood. Myelinated axons appear white due to the presence of lipids and form the white matter of the inner brain and outer spinal cord. White matter is specialized for carrying information quickly through the brain and spinal cord.

The gray matter of the brain and spinal cord are the unmyelinated integration centers where information is processed. Reflexes are fast, involuntary responses to stimuli. Reflexes are integrated in the gray matter of the spinal cord or in the brain stem. Reflexes allow the body to respond to stimuli very quickly by sending responses to effectors before the nerve signals reach the conscious parts of the brain.

This explains why people will often pull their hands away from a hot object before they realize they are in pain. All sensory receptors can be classified by their structure and by the type of stimulus that they detect.

How reproductive systems work