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In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples. The Thule people arrived in Greenland in the 13th century. There are truly countless diet and weight-loss plans out there. Set yourself up for success by selecting a plan that is doable. Encounters on the Passage: Although still a part of the Kingdom of Denmark along with Denmark proper and the Faroe Islands , Greenland, known as Kalaallit Nunaat in the Greenlandic language , maintains much autonomy today. Faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan -speaking peoples to the south, the Tuniit gradually receded.
During the winter, certain Inuit lived in a temporary shelter made from snow called an igloo , and during the few months of the year when temperatures were above freezing, they lived in tents, known as tupiq ,  made of animal skins supported by a frame of bones or wood.
The division of labor in traditional Inuit society had a strong gender component, but it was not absolute. The men were traditionally hunters and fishermen and the women took care of the children, cleaned the home, sewed, processed food, and cooked. However, there are numerous examples of women who hunted, out of necessity or as a personal choice.
At the same time men, who could be away from camp for several days at a time, would be expected to know how to sew and cook. The marital customs among the Inuit were not strictly monogamous: Open marriages , polygamy , divorce , and remarriage were known. Among some Inuit groups, if there were children, divorce required the approval of the community and particularly the agreement of the elders.
Marriages were often arranged , sometimes in infancy , and occasionally forced on the couple by the community. Marriage was common for women at puberty and for men when they became productive hunters. Family structure was flexible: Every household had its head, an elder or a particularly respected man. There was also a larger notion of community as, generally, several families shared a place where they wintered.
Goods were shared within a household, and also, to a significant extent, within a whole community. The Inuit were hunter—gatherers ,  and have been referred to as nomadic. Loud singing and drumming were also customary after a birth.
Virtually all Inuit cultures have oral traditions of raids by other indigenous peoples, including fellow Inuit, and of taking vengeance on them in return, such as the Bloody Falls massacre.
Western observers often regarded these tales as generally not entirely accurate historical accounts, but more as self-serving myths. However, evidence shows that Inuit cultures had quite accurate methods of teaching historical accounts to each new generation.
The historic accounts of violence against outsiders does make clear that there was a history of hostile contact within the Inuit cultures and with other cultures. The known confederations were usually formed to defend against a more prosperous, and thus stronger, nation. Alternately, people who lived in less productive geographical areas tended to be less warlike, as they had to spend more time producing food. Justice within Inuit culture was moderated by the form of governance that gave significant power to the elders.
As in most cultures around the world, justice could be harsh and often included capital punishment for serious crimes against the community or the individual. During raids against other peoples, the Inuit, like their non-Inuit neighbors, tended to be merciless.
A pervasive European myth about Inuit is that they killed elderly senicide and "unproductive people",  but this is not generally true. Leenaars ' book Suicide in Canada he states that " Rasmussen found that the death of elders by suicide was a commonplace among the Iglulik Inuit. According to Franz Boas , suicide was " Aged people who have outlived their usefulness and whose life is a burden both to themselves and their relatives are put to death by stabbing or strangulation.
This is customarily done at the request of the individual concerned, but not always so. Aged people who are a hindrance on the trail are abandoned. When food is not sufficient, the elderly are the least likely to survive. In the extreme case of famine , the Inuit fully understood that, if there was to be any hope of obtaining more food, a hunter was necessarily the one to feed on whatever food was left.
However, a common response to desperate conditions and the threat of starvation was infanticide. The belief that the Inuit regularly resorted to infanticide may be due in part to studies done by Asen Balikci,  Milton Freeman  and David Riches  among the Netsilik, along with the trial of Kikkik.
The research is neither complete nor conclusive to allow for a determination of whether infanticide was a rare or a widely practiced event. Anthropologists believed that Inuit cultures routinely killed children born with physical defects because of the demands of the extreme climate. These views were changed by late 20th century discoveries of burials at an archaeological site. Between and , a storm with high winds caused ocean waves to erode part of the bluffs near Barrow, Alaska , and a body was discovered to have been washed out of the mud.
Unfortunately the storm claimed the body, which was not recovered. But examination of the eroded bank indicated that an ancient house, perhaps with other remains, was likely to be claimed by the next storm. The site, known as the "Ukkuqsi archaeological site", was excavated.
Several frozen bodies now known as the "frozen family" were recovered, autopsies were performed, and they were re-interred as the first burials in the then-new Imaiqsaun Cemetery south of Barrow. It was a female child, approximately 9 years old, who had clearly been born with a congenital birth defect. Autopsies near Greenland reveal that, more commonly pneumonia , kidney diseases , trichinosis , malnutrition , and degenerative disorders may have contributed to mass deaths among different Inuit tribes.
The Inuit believed that the causes of the disease were of a spiritual origin. More common among the Canadian Inuit than it is among non-indigenous southern Canadians. In the incidence in Nunavut Was per , — more than 66 times the rate seen in the general population".
Inuit traditional laws are anthropologically different from Western law concepts. Customary law was thought non-existent in Inuit society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system. Hoebel , in , concluded that only 'rudimentary law' existed amongst the Inuit. Indeed, prior to about , it is impossible to find even one reference to a Western observer who was aware that any form of governance existed among any Inuit,  however, there was a set way of doing things that had to be followed:.
If an individual's actions went against the tirigusuusiit, maligait or piqujait, the angakkuq shaman might have to intervene, lest the consequences be dire to the individual or the community. We are told today that Inuit never had laws or "maligait". They say because they are not written on paper. When I think of paper, I think you can tear it up, and the laws are gone. The laws of the Inuit are not on paper. The environment in which the Inuit lived inspired a mythology filled with adventure tales of whale and walrus hunts.
Long winter months of waiting for caribou herds or sitting near breathing holes hunting seals gave birth to stories of mysterious and sudden appearance of ghosts and fantastic creatures. Some Inuit looked into the aurora borealis , or northern lights, to find images of their family and friends dancing in the next life.
This tale is still told to children today. The nearest thing to a central deity was the Old Woman Sedna , who lived beneath the sea. The waters, a central food source, were believed to contain great gods. The Inuit practiced a form of shamanism based on animist principles. They believed that all things had a form of spirit, including humans, and that to some extent these spirits could be influenced by a pantheon of supernatural entities that could be appeased when one required some animal or inanimate thing to act in a certain way.
The angakkuq of a community of Inuit was not the leader, but rather a sort of healer and psychotherapist , who tended wounds and offered advice, as well as invoking the spirits to assist people in their lives. His or her role was to see, interpret and exhort the subtle and unseen.
Angakkuit were not trained; they were held to be born with the ability and recognized by the community as they approached adulthood.
Inuit religion was closely tied to a system of rituals integrated into the daily life of the people. These rituals were simple but held to be necessary. According to a customary Inuit saying,. By believing that all things, including animals, have souls like those of humans, any hunt that failed to show appropriate respect and customary supplication would only give the liberated spirits cause to avenge themselves.
The harshness and unpredictability of life in the Arctic ensured that Inuit lived with concern for the uncontrollable, where a streak of bad luck could destroy an entire community. To offend a spirit was to risk its interference with an already marginal existence. The Inuit understood that they had to work in harmony with supernatural powers to provide the necessities of day-to-day life. Although the 50,  Inuit listed in the Canada Census can be found throughout Canada the majority, 44,, live in four regions.
As of the Canada Census there were 4, Inuit living in Newfoundland and Labrador  and about 2, live in Nunatsiavut. As of the Canada Census there were 24, Inuit living in Nunavut. As of the Canada Census there were 10, Inuit living in Quebec. The population size of Greenlandic people in Denmark varies from source to source between 15, and 20, According to figures from Statistics Denmark there are 15, people residing in Denmark of Greenlandic Inuit ancestry.
Nonetheless, it has come together with other circumpolar cultural and political groups to promote the Inuit and other northern people in their fight against ecological problems such as climate change which disproportionately affects the Inuit population. At that event they signed the Nuuk Declaration. They are officially represented by the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation and, in , received a comprehensive land claims settlement, the first in Northern Canada, with the signing of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement.
This agreement called for the separation of the Northwest Territories into an eastern territory whose Aboriginal population would be predominately Inuit,  the future Nunavut, and a rump Northwest Territories in the west. It was the largest land claims agreement in Canadian history.
The Canadian Parliament passed the supporting legislation in June of the same year, enabling the establishment of Nunavut as a territorial entity. With the establishment of Nunatsiavut in , almost all the traditional Inuit lands in Canada, with the exception NunatuKavut in central and South Labrador, are now covered by some sort of land claims agreement providing for regional autonomy.
Although still a part of the Kingdom of Denmark along with Denmark proper and the Faroe Islands , Greenland, known as Kalaallit Nunaat in the Greenlandic language , maintains much autonomy today.
Their economy is based on fishing and shrimping. The Thule people arrived in Greenland in the 13th century. There they encountered the Norsemen, who had established colonies there since the late 10th century, as well as a later wave of the Dorset people. Because most of Greenland is covered in ice, the Greenland Inuit or Kalaallit only live in coastal settlements, particularly the northern polar coast, the eastern Amassalik coast and the central coasts of western Greenland. European Colonization of Alaska started in the 18th century by Russia.
By the s, the Russian government was considering ridding itself of its Russian America colony. Alaska was officially incorporated to United States on January 3, Barrow, the northernmost city in the United States , is in the Inupiat region. Their language is Iñupiaq which is the singular form of Inupiat. Inuit art , carving, print making, textiles and Inuit throat singing , are very popular, not only in Canada but globally, and Inuit artists are widely known.
Canada has adopted some of the Inuit culture as national symbols, using Inuit cultural icons like the inukshuk in unlikely places, such as its use as a symbol at the Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Respected art galleries display Inuit art, the largest collection of which is at the Winnipeg Art Gallery. Some Inuit languages, such as Inuktitut, appears to have a more secure future in Quebec and Nunavut.
There are a surprising number of Inuit, even those who now live in urban centres such as Ottawa , Montreal and Winnipeg , who have experienced living on the land in the traditional life style.
Inuit culture is alive and vibrant today in spite of the negative impacts of recent history. An important biennial event, the Arctic Winter Games , is held in communities across the northern regions of the world, featuring traditional Inuit and northern sports as part of the events.
A cultural event is also held. The games were first held in , and while rotated usually among Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories, they have also been held in Schefferville, Quebec in , in Slave Lake , Alberta , and a joint Iqaluit, Nunavut- Nuuk , Greenland staging in In other sporting events, Jordin Tootoo became the first Inuk to play in the National Hockey League in the —04 season, playing for the Nashville Predators.
Although Inuit life has changed significantly over the past century, many traditions continue. Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit , or traditional knowledge, such as storytelling, mythology, music , and dancing remain important parts of the culture. Family and community are very important. The Inuktitut language is still spoken in many areas of the Arctic and is common on radio and in television programming. In May after being re-elected for her second term, Ms.
In July she was sworn in as the Minister of the Environment. Visual and performing arts are strong. In the first feature film in Inuktitut, Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner , was released worldwide to great critical and popular acclaim.
It was directed by Zacharias Kunuk , and written, filmed, produced, directed, and acted almost entirely by the Inuit of Igloolik.
Susan Aglukark is a popular singer. Mitiarjuk Attasie Nappaaluk worked at preserving Inuktitut and wrote one of the first novels ever published in that language. Recently, there has been an identity struggle among the younger generations of Inuit, between their traditional heritage and the modern society which their cultures have been forced to assimilate into in order to maintain a livelihood.
With current dependence on modern society for necessities, including governmental jobs, food, aid, medicine, etc. The stressors regarding the identity crisis among teenagers have led to disturbingly high numbers of suicide. A series of authors has focused upon the increasing myopia in the youngest generations of Inuit.
Myopia was almost unknown prior to the Inuit adoption of western culture. Principal theories are the change to a western style diet with more refined foods, and extended education. David Pisurayak Kootook was awarded the Meritorious Service Cross, posthumously, for his heroic efforts in a plane crash. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the film, see Inuk film. For other uses of Inuit, see Inuit disambiguation. Indigenous cultures Indigenous personalities Country food Music. Traditional beliefs Inuit religion. Eskimo kinship and Inuit women. Suicide in Greenland and Suicide among Canadian aboriginal people. Leenaars, Suicide in Canada . Inuit mythology and Shamanism among Eskimo peoples.
Kalaallit and History of Greenland. Retrieved October 20, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 25, Retrieved 17 Oct Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 1 August Which names to use?
Department of Justice Canada. Archived from the original on Inuit, Métis and First Nations, Census: Concise Historical Atlas of Canada. University of Toronto Press. Louis Gentilcore; Geoffrey J. Historical Atlas of Canada. Archived from the original PDF on Penguin University of California. A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes. Vanished Mystery Men of Hudson Bay.
Library and Archives Canada. National Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original PDF on May 14, Perrin; Bernd Wursig; J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. The Historical Linguistics of Native America , pg.
Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. Retrieved 18 Oct Stern 27 July Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Language of the Inuit: Syntax, Semantics, and Society in the Arctic. Not included are the myriad of other species of plants and animals that Inuit use, such as geese, ducks, rabbits, ptarmigan, swans, halibut, clams, mussels, cod, berries and seaweed. An Oral History of Nunavut. For some, these foods were a treat; Am J Clin Nutr. Archived from the original PDF on October 23, Retrieved May 29, Retrieved October 11, Retrieved July 16, Bridging the Gap Between Architects and Engineers.
Trigger and Wilcomb E. Cambridge University Press, Milton's Teeth and Ovid's Umbrella: Archived from the original on June 20, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology.
Alaska Native Science Commission. A Yupiaq World View. University of Oklahoma Press. Given the importance that Eskimos attached to the aged, it is surprising that so many Westerners believe that they systematically eliminated elderly people as soon as they became incapable of performing the duties related to hunting or sewing.
The Edwin Mellen Press. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society. Gift of the Whale: Inuit Perspectives on Traditional Law". But the risks far outweigh any benefits, and ultimately, fasting can cause more harm than good. Some plans allow a few solid foods, but are still called fasts because they provide so few calories. Not all fasts are created equal. Some can be perfectly safe, such as medical fasts supervised by a physician. Religious and cultural fasts are typically undertaken as an act of devotion, last from hours, and are not intended to promote weight loss.
Fasts lasting a day or two are unlikely to be dangerous for most healthy adults. But high-risk people, the elderly, anyone with a chronic disease, pregnant women, and children are advised against any type of fasting. The real danger lies in staying on the fast for prolonged periods, anywhere from three days to a month. When you dramatically reduce your calorie intake, you will lose weight.
But it can also cause all kinds of health problems, including muscle loss. Further, when you start fasting, your body goes into conservation mode, burning calories more slowly. Keep in mind that the initial weight lost on a fast is primarily fluid or "water weight," not fat. And when you go back to eating, any lost weight usually gets a return ticket back. Not only do most people regain weight lost on a fast, they tend to add a few extra pounds because a slower metabolism makes it easier to gain weight.
Worse, the weight that is regained is likely to be all fat -- lost muscle has to be added back at the gym. Side effects of fasting include dizziness , headaches , low blood sugar , muscle aches, weakness , and fatigue.
Prolonged fasting can lead to anemia , a weakened immune system, liver and kidney problems, and irregular heartbeat.