Digestive System Model Demonstrating Sequence and Length of Organs

www.lessontutor.com: the Digestive System- printable picture worksheet

Digestive system of gastropods
Thank You for Your Contribution! Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Draw it a couple of inches below the stomach because the large intestine will end up going on top of it. The esophagus has a mucous membrane of epithelium which has a protective function as well as providing a smooth surface for the passage of food. GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide 1. Cookies make wikiHow better. The team looked specifically at the mycotoxins that result in muscle tremors - such toxins are called 'tremorgens'.

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It should look like two squiggly tubes side by side and should go straight up on the left side of the small intestine, then go across the body below the stomach, and then go straight down towards the bottom of the body on the right. It should form the top three sides of a squiggly, tubelike- square. The passage of food is slower through the large intestine in order to allow for fermentation by bacteria and other microorganisms, called gut flora.

The large intestine processes whatever cannot be used in digestion. It absorbs whatever it can, especially water, but then the rest will expelled as waste after about 12 hours. To make a more advanced model, distinguish between the different parts of the large intestine. The cecum is attached to the appendix and connects it to the ascending colon. The ascending colon goes straight upwards and connects to the transverse colon, which goes across the body.

The transverse colon connects to the descending colon, which carries food down into the sigmoid colon, which goes directly to the rectum. Draw the rectum and anus. At the end of the large intestine is the rectum. The rectum connects the large intestine to the anus. To draw these, simply draw a wide tube that is the rectum leading to a narrower tube that is the anus. This should go to the bottom of your sheet of paper. Congratulations, you have drawn a digestive model!

The rectum stores feces until expulsion. The anus then expels waste. Now that your model is finished, take a black pen or marker and draw over it to create the final version. This is a nice finishing touch that will make it look more professional and will help it to really stand out. Simply trace over all of the pencil marks that you wish to keep. Color each organ a different color. This helps your model to stand out and also helps to distinguish between the organs.

For some of the organs, simply by looking at the drawing, it can be hard to tell where one ends and another begins, but if you color code them, it will be clear. For overlapping organs, try using using lighter and darker shades of the same color. The areas where they overlap will be darker, and the areas where it is a single organ will be lighter. Draw a thin line to each organ and write its name at the end of the line, outside of your model. This is great for reference so that you can study your model and learn which organ is which.

If you prefer not to write the names of the organs on your model, you could instead make a key at the bottom or on another piece of paper where you draw a little square of each color and write the name of the organ next to it. If you wish to make your model more advanced, you can differentiate the parts of the small intestine. Simply draw a small line towards the beginning of the small intestine to show where the duodenum turns into the jejunum and then draw a small line towards the end of the small intestine to show where the jejunum becomes the ileum.

If you wish to make your model more advanced, you can also differentiate the parts of the large intestine. Simply draw a small line to divide each part.

The ascending colon is the part that goes straight upwards. It connects to the transverse colon which goes across the body and is the largest part of the large intestine. The transverse colon connects to the descending colon, which carries food downward. Finally, there is the sigmoid colon which goes directly to the rectum. To learn even better, you can write a short description of each organ either with the labels or with your key.

This will reinforce their functions and help your model to be very educational. The main function of the epiglottis is to seal off the windpipe during eating, so that food is not accidentally inhaled. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 5. Food that contains fat enters the digestive system and stimulates hormone production, which in turn causes the contraction of the gallbladder, allowing the release of bile into the small intestine for the absorption of fat to occur.

Not Helpful 3 Helpful 5. The anus is the end of the digestive system and expels waste. It detects the contents of the rectum and then releases waste out of the body. Not Helpful 10 Helpful The function of the appendix is unknown. Other experts believe the appendix is just a useless remnant from our evolutionary past. Not Helpful 2 Helpful 5. The pancreas is an accessory digestive organ.

It functions to control blood glucose levels releasing insulin to reduce blood glucose levels, and glucagon to increase blood glucose levels , but it also releases many digestive enzymes into the small intestine that help chemically digest food proteins, carbs, etc.

Not Helpful 1 Helpful 0. What would be a good description for a resistor? Answer this question Flag as Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Simply start with one organ and when you have drawn that and understood its function, you can move onto the next. Did you try these steps?

Upload a picture for other readers to see. Tell us more about it? Click here to share your story. Biology Models Print Edit Send fan mail to authors. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 57, times. Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our cookie policy. Note the highly folded wall of the omasum.

Cow's stomach viewed from the right-hand side. The large intestine In addition to the caecum the large intestine is made up of the ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. Much of the large intestine comprises the colon, which is shorter in length but larger in diameter than the small intestine.

The colon is involved in the active transport of sodium, and absorption of water by osmosis, from the digested material that it contains. It also provides an environment for bacteria to grow and reproduce. These symbiotic bacteria produce important vitamins such as vitamin K, thiamine , and riboflavin , required by the animal for proper growth and health.

Finally, the large intestine eliminates wastes. Mycotoxins and rumen function. Image courtesy of Lance McLeay. They found that at least some of the mycotoxins they tested disrupted muscle contractions in the rumen and reticulum. This disruption was sometimes severe and lasted up to 12 hours.

They concluded that "severe disruption of digestion may occur in animals grazing endophyte-infected pasture" McLeay et al.

The endophytic fungi also produce another set of compounts - the ergots similar to adrenalin that increase body temperature, induce heat stress, and cause marked effects on contractions of the rumen and reticulum as shown in the above image. This mycotoxin may cause scours diarrhoea in affected animals. Ruminant animals range in size from kg i.

Smaller animals have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight. The small body size means that their small guts would not be able to cope with the high retention times and throughput of a ruminant digestive system. In comparison, large nonruminants such as giraffes and elephants have comparatively lower energy requirements than ruminants per unit of body weight.

Therefore, they are able to extract enough energy from plants without the need for rumination. These non-ruminant herbivores have a somewhat different digestive anatomy. The three forestomach chambers are absent, replaced with a single secretory stomach, and plant material is fermented in the caecum and large intestine.

This process is known as hindgut fermentation. Humans, horse, dogs and rabbits all have monogastric digestion — they have a single stomach chamber. Animals with monogastric digestion are still able to digest some of the cellulose in their diet, by way of symbiotic gut bacteria.

However, their ability to extract energy from cellulose digestion is less efficient than in ruminants. However, unlike other monogastric herbivores, the caecum and large intestine of hindgut fermenters is very large and anatomically complex. Here regular muscle contractions in the colon wall efficiently mix the digested food and allow absorption of water, salts and the nutrients produced through fermentation.

Food moves only slowly through the colon — in horses it takes days to pass the length of the colon. The lower colon absorbs water and concentrates waste material before this is egested as faeces through the rectum. Scientists believe that hind-gut fermentation is comparatively less efficient than rumination when it comes to extracting nutrients from cellulose-rich plant material.

This has driven the evolution of a number of behavioural and physical adaptations in monogastric animals that maximise the energy they extract from their high-fibre diets. Horses Horses lose a lot of the proteins produced by microbes living in their colons. This is because there is no opportunity for the animal to absorb many of the amino acids that the microbes generate. To compensate for this, horses consume comparatively more food than ruminant animals Duncan et al.

This means that they need to obtain energy from their food quickly, eating little and often. Plant material is digested in the caecum by symbiotic bacteria. This process is called caecotrophy, and usually happens while the animal is in its burrow. Their generally small size means that they have high metabolic energy requirements but little physical capacity for retentive digestion of vegetative matter. Therefore, ingestion of plant material is generally restricted to high energy sections of the plant such as fruit, nectar and pollen or seeds; or to sections that are more easily digestible such as growing tips, seedlings and flowers.

This selectivity is also practiced by omnivorous animals such as bears, pigs, possums and humans. Digestion in humans is similar to that of other monogastric animals. However, unlike most herbivorous animals, humans have a relatively small caecum with a vermiform appendix.

The appendix is a blind-ended tube connected to the caecum near the point where the small intestine joins the large intestine. The appendix appears to be a vestigial structure, reduced in size and function when compared to the same structure in other animals. Over time, the diets of early humans changed to include more meat and less high-fibre plant material. This meant that there was no selective advantage in having a large appendix and in fact there would be an energy cost in maintaining it , and individuals with a smaller appendix became more common over time.

Modern humans would have difficulty extracting enough nutrients if they were restricted to a diet similar to that of ruminant animals. In other words, our diet is restricted by our inability to extract sufficient nutrients from high-cellulose plant material. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin. Comparative nutrient extraction from forages by grazing bovids and equids: Behavior patterns of sheep and cattle being fed pasture or soilage.

Journal of Animal Science Munday-Finch Tremorgenic mycotoxins paxilline, penitrem and lolitrem B, the non-tremorgenic epilolitrem B and electromyographic activity of the reticulum and rumen of sheep. Research in Veterinary Science All animals - with the exception of some endoparasites such as tapeworms - have a digestive system.

In this section we're going to look at digestion in ruminants, and compare their guts with those of other, non-ruminant, mammals.

What is the rumen? The rumen is one of four stomach compartments found in ruminants. The rumen allows grazing animals to digest cellulose, a very common carbohydrate in plants. The rumen, the first of the forestomach chambers, stores and processes plant material.

It can be a very large structure indeed: The rumen holds plant material until it has been broken down, releasing volatile fatty acids , and fermentation of protein and carbohydrates has begun. Because most plants, especially grasses, have a high cellulose content.

A cellulose molecule is a polymer, made up of a long chain of subunits called simple sugars, or monosaccharides. Huge numbers of these bacteria are present in the rumen and the reticulum: How does ruminant digestion work? Ruminant digestion begins when a cow swallows a mouthful of plants. The food is partially chewed and mixed into a bolus with saliva, before being swallowed and passing down the oesophagus into the rumen.

When ruminants are grazing they tend to swallow their food quickly, with only minimal mastication. It's important for the rumen to function effectively as this results in maximal digestion and absorption of nutrients from the animal's feed, and this in turn maximises production of milk, meat and wool.

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